How to Reset Root Password in MySQL 8.0

How to Reset Root Password in MySQL 8.0 Техника
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  1. Сообщения с 26 по 50 из 61
  2. 26 2010-12-13 20:39:19
  3. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  4. 27 Ответ от Юлия Бойко 2010-12-13 23:36:04
  5. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  6. 28 Ответ от greahem 2011-03-15 12:13:28 (изменено: greahem, 2011-03-15 12:15:13)
  7. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  8. 29 Ответ от DmitryV 2011-03-15 14:55:13 (изменено: DmitryV, 2011-03-15 14:58:06)
  9. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  10. 30 Ответ от Alanamana 2011-06-02 21:32:05 (изменено: Alanamana, 2011-06-02 21:33:34)
  11. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  12. 31 Ответ от Hanut 2011-06-02 23:11:20
  13. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  14. 32 Ответ от Alanamana 2011-06-03 14:22:32
  15. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  16. 33 Ответ от Meehan 2012-01-27 16:50:09
  17. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  18. 34 Ответ от Hanut 2012-01-27 17:09:58
  19. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  20. 35 Ответ от Meehan 2012-01-27 17:24:24 (изменено: Meehan, 2012-01-27 17:47:38)
  21. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  22. 36 Ответ от Hanut 2012-01-27 19:21:06
  23. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  24. 37 Ответ от Meehan 2012-01-27 19:33:14
  25. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  26. 38 Ответ от Hanut 2012-01-27 19:49:25
  27. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  28. 39 Ответ от Meehan 2012-01-27 19:54:46
  29. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  30. 40 Ответ от Hanut 2012-01-27 20:11:44
  31. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  32. 41 Ответ от Meehan 2012-01-27 20:18:25 (изменено: Meehan, 2012-01-27 20:18:52)
  33. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  34. 42 Ответ от Meehan 2012-01-27 22:14:57
  35. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  36. 43 Ответ от Hanut 2012-01-27 22:30:57
  37. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  38. 44 Ответ от Meehan 2012-01-27 22:33:16
  39. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  40. 45 Ответ от Hanut 2012-01-27 22:43:55
  41. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  42. 46 Ответ от User-712 2012-05-30 12:31:21 (изменено: User-712, 2012-05-30 12:33:00)
  43. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  44. 47 Ответ от Олег Иванович 2013-01-18 11:57:37
  45. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  46. 48 Ответ от Hanut 2013-01-18 12:33:54
  47. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  48. 49 Ответ от Олег Иванович 2013-01-18 13:33:04
  49. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  50. 50 Ответ от Hanut 2013-01-18 19:54:32
  51. Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)
  52. Why does MYSQL say ‘Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’?
  53. Solution:
  54. Solution:
  55. Solution:
  56. Solution:
  57. FAQs
  58. 1. Where is the MYSQL error log?
  59. How to change the root password for MySQL?
  60. How to recover the root password for MySQL?
  61. Project Setup
  62. Docker
  63. Notes
  64. Gunicorn
  65. Production Dockerfile
  66. Nginx
  67. Static Files
  68. Development
  69. Production
  70. Development
  71. Production
  72. Objectives
  73. What is Vault?
  74. Auditing
  75. Static Secrets
  76. CLI
  77. API
  78. Policies
  79. Encryption as a Service
  80. Dynamic Secrets
  81. AWS Credentials
  82. Leases and Revocation
  83. Access denied for user ‘[email protected]’ (using password
  84. Solutions
  85. Similar questions
  86. How do I reset my localhost MySQL password?
  87. What is default MySQL root password?
  88. What is the default root password for MySQL in ubuntu?
  89. How do I change the root password in MySQL 8?

Сообщения с 26 по 50 из 61

26 2010-12-13 20:39:19

  • Hanut
  • Откуда: Рига, Латвия

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Юлия Бойко сказал:

Пароль был установлен у root?

27 Ответ от Юлия Бойко 2010-12-13 23:36:04

  • Юлия Бойко
  • Зарегистрирован: 2010-12-12
  • Сообщений: 2

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Изначально нет, но после того , как я добавила пароль, то появилась вышеуказанная ошибка!

Благодарю, за то, что отозвались, но у меня уже получилось справиться с проблемой.Честно говоря , так и не поняла, какое из моих действий посодействовало этому))), т.к. я и кеш чистила во всех браузерах, и Денвер переустанавливала, надеясь, что это поможет)))))) Вообщем, была в панике)))

28 Ответ от greahem 2011-03-15 12:13:28 (изменено: greahem, 2011-03-15 12:15:13)

  • greahem
  • Откуда: Тольятти
  • Зарегистрирован: 2011-03-15
  • Сообщений: 1

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Всем добрый день!Сегодня тоже столкнулся с этой же проблемой. Благо последние мои действия в PMA, которые и привели к ошибке помню, поэтому разбирался недолго.Накануне я создал новую базу данных и менял привилегии, а именно задал пароль для имеющегося пользователя root.Чтобы исправить ситуацию, надо открыть файл config.inc.php и в строке:

$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password']             = '';

между апострофами вставить пароль, который задавали через административную панель web. Сохраняете изменения и все работает.

29 Ответ от DmitryV 2011-03-15 14:55:13 (изменено: DmitryV, 2011-03-15 14:58:06)

  • DmitryV
  • Откуда: Санкт-Петербург, Россия

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Юлия Бойко измените строку:

$cfg['Servers'][$i]['auth_type'] = 'config';

на строку:

$cfg['Servers'][$i]['auth_type'] = 'cookie';

и добавьте строку:

и укажите логин и пароль при входе в форме, не перепутайте язык и регистр.

30 Ответ от Alanamana 2011-06-02 21:32:05 (изменено: Alanamana, 2011-06-02 21:33:34)

  • Alanamana
  • Зарегистрирован: 2011-06-02
  • Сообщений: 2

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Приветствую. Вы можете мне помочь, пожалуйста. У меня возникла подобная ошибка:

MySQL Error!
————————
The Error returned was:
Access denied for user ‘barbiiik_sv’@’localhost’ (using password: YES)
Error Number:
1

После того, как я установил чат на сайт, сразу пропал сам сайт (вместо него выдает, что написал выше) и форум теперь тоже не работает выдает, что Ошибка базы данныхВ базе данных произошла ошибка.

Подскажите, что я не так сделал и как это исправить. Возможно это возникло из-за того, что был установлен пароль для базы данных или я что-то сделал не так. Чат я загружал не в корень сайта, а в папку форума. sad Что делать, вы мне поможете? Может что нужно исправить или внести изменения в базу данных? Причем к примеру радио работает…

31 Ответ от Hanut 2011-06-02 23:11:20

  • Hanut
  • Откуда: Рига, Латвия

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Alanamana сказал:

Возможно это возникло из-за того, что был установлен пароль для базы данных

Если вы меняли пароль в phpMyAdmin, например, то надо было его поменять и в конфигурационных файлах скриптов, которые работают с базой данных. Проверьте, можете ли вы зайти в phpMyAdmin и если можете, то определите имя пользователя и пароль MySQL которые вы используете, после чего отредактируйте конфигурационные файлы всех скриптов, которые подключаются к БД.

32 Ответ от Alanamana 2011-06-03 14:22:32

  • Alanamana
  • Зарегистрирован: 2011-06-02
  • Сообщений: 2

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Hanut сказал:

Возможно это возникло из-за того, что был установлен пароль для базы данных

Нашел проблему, благодоря вашему совету, спасибо.

33 Ответ от Meehan 2012-01-27 16:50:09

  • Meehan
  • Зарегистрирован: 2012-01-27
  • Сообщений: 16

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Всем привет. Тоже такая же ошибка Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: YES)
думал переуставновить MySQL. Так он теперь не ставится. В самом конце настройки вот такое вылазит

http://s42.radikal.ru/i095/1201/1a/aa72b8ae4aff.jpg

что здесь можно сделать?заранее спасибо

34 Ответ от Hanut 2012-01-27 17:09:58

  • Hanut
  • Откуда: Рига, Латвия

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Meehan сказал:

что здесь можно сделать?

Попробуйте перед установкой отключиться от Интернет и выключить антивирус и брандмауэр.

Убедитесь, что вы не ставили пароль пользователю root, иначе его надо указать при установке.

35 Ответ от Meehan 2012-01-27 17:24:24 (изменено: Meehan, 2012-01-27 17:47:38)

  • Meehan
  • Зарегистрирован: 2012-01-27
  • Сообщений: 16

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

попробовал установить при отключенном интернете антивирусе брандмауэре, та же ошибкапопробовал при установке не вводить пароль, получилосьпросто устанавливал по статье Инструментарий веб-разработчика там говорят нужно парольпотом не будет проблем из-за пароля?

ввожу в адресную строку браузера localhost/phpmyadmin
а там такое

http://s40.radikal.ru/i089/1201/53/70c783724f5c.jpg

36 Ответ от Hanut 2012-01-27 19:21:06

  • Hanut
  • Откуда: Рига, Латвия

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Meehan сказал:

Значит при установке MySQL вы не вводили пароль.

Что вы прописали в конфигурационном файле phpMyAdmin в переменной пароля root?

37 Ответ от Meehan 2012-01-27 19:33:14

  • Meehan
  • Зарегистрирован: 2012-01-27
  • Сообщений: 16

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

я ж говорю, что не ввел пароль и получилось установить

Meehan сказал:

попробовал установить при отключенном интернете антивирусе брандмауэре, та же ошибкапопробовал при установке не вводить пароль, получилосьпросто устанавливал по статье Инструментарий веб-разработчика там говорят нужно парольпотом не будет проблем из-за пароля?

в переменной пароля ничего не писал, так как пароль я ж не устанавливал

38 Ответ от Hanut 2012-01-27 19:49:25

  • Hanut
  • Откуда: Рига, Латвия

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Meehan сказал:

в переменной пароля ничего не писал,

Ошибка пишет using password: YES. Значит пароль прописан. Попробуйте очистить куки браузера или использовать альтернативный браузер.

39 Ответ от Meehan 2012-01-27 19:54:46

  • Meehan
  • Зарегистрирован: 2012-01-27
  • Сообщений: 16

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

ввел пароль в файле config.inc.phpтеперь в браузере такое выскакаивает

http://s018.radikal.ru/i527/1201/ae/5df446c24c52.jpg

40 Ответ от Hanut 2012-01-27 20:11:44

  • Hanut
  • Откуда: Рига, Латвия

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

В php.ini обратите внимание на строку:

session.save_path = "C:/php/tmp"

Каталог C:/php/tmp необходимо создать самостоятельно.

41 Ответ от Meehan 2012-01-27 20:18:25 (изменено: Meehan, 2012-01-27 20:18:52)

  • Meehan
  • Зарегистрирован: 2012-01-27
  • Сообщений: 16

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

создал папку C:/php/tmpтеперь опять

строка session.save_path = «C:/php/tmp» есть

42 Ответ от Meehan 2012-01-27 22:14:57

  • Meehan
  • Зарегистрирован: 2012-01-27
  • Сообщений: 16

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

нажал на синий знак вопроса после слов Ответ MySQL
открылась новая страница в браузере, там ввел пользователь и пароль и вошел в phpmyadmin
как это? и почему?

43 Ответ от Hanut 2012-01-27 22:30:57

  • Hanut
  • Откуда: Рига, Латвия

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Meehan сказал:

как это? и почему?

Куки браузера надо было очистить.

44 Ответ от Meehan 2012-01-27 22:33:16

  • Meehan
  • Зарегистрирован: 2012-01-27
  • Сообщений: 16

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

куки чистил
вошел в phpmyadmin
там изменил пароль на всякий случай, теперь заходит нормально

Hanut, спасибо огромное за то, что со мной возился.

45 Ответ от Hanut 2012-01-27 22:43:55

  • Hanut
  • Откуда: Рига, Латвия

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Пожалуйста. Хорошо, что разобрались.

46 Ответ от User-712 2012-05-30 12:31:21 (изменено: User-712, 2012-05-30 12:33:00)

  • User-712
  • Зарегистрирован: 2012-05-30
  • Сообщений: 2

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Для тех у кого ошибка на Denwer’e.

1. Хотел зайти на сайт, пишу в строке браузера (localhost/mysite) и а вместо сайта сообщение об ошибке *Нет доступа к базе данных*. (только на англ.)

2. Попытался зайти в phpmyadmin и получил сообщение: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO).

Впервые с таким столкнулся, два часа потратил но решение нашел.

Заходим в службы (Панель управления — Администрирование — Службы), там находим MySql (Смотрим исполняемый файл, у меня после установки сторонней программы он изменился на c:\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt.exe MySQL).

Решение очень простое. Останавливаем службу MySQL (Тип запуска меняем на *Отключена*.), перезагружаем комп, включаем Denwer.

Все работает. smile

47 Ответ от Олег Иванович 2013-01-18 11:57:37

  • Олег Иванович
  • Зарегистрирован: 2013-01-18
  • Сообщений: 18

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Добрый день, прочёл все сообщения в данной теме, попробовал все варианты, но у меня проблема так и не решилась, прошу помощи!!!!!

48 Ответ от Hanut 2013-01-18 12:33:54

  • Hanut
  • Откуда: Рига, Латвия

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Олег Иванович сказал:

Добрый день, прочёл все сообщения в данной теме, попробовал все варианты, но у меня проблема так и не решилась, прошу помощи!!!!!

Какой веб сервер у вас установлен? Денвер, или что-то еще?

49 Ответ от Олег Иванович 2013-01-18 13:33:04

  • Олег Иванович
  • Зарегистрирован: 2013-01-18
  • Сообщений: 18

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Apache 2.2.22

Hanut сказал:

Олег Иванович сказал:

Добрый день, прочёл все сообщения в данной теме, попробовал все варианты, но у меня проблема так и не решилась, прошу помощи!!!!!

Какой веб сервер у вас установлен? Денвер, или что-то еще?

50 Ответ от Hanut 2013-01-18 19:54:32

  • Hanut
  • Откуда: Рига, Латвия

Re: #1045 — Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Олег Иванович сказал:

Если MySQL устанавливали самостоятельно, то при его установке должны были задать пароль пользователя root. Вы устанавливали пароль при установки MySQL?

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Why does MYSQL say ‘Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’?

In all simplicity, you are facing the error ‘Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ because as the root user, you do not have the adequate privilege (permission, in other terms) to access the MySQL database.

Now, to further the discussion, you could be facing the issue due to multiple reasons, some of which include:

  • When a user is non-existent to the MySQL server tries accessing the MySQL database.
  • When no privilege exists for the user (as mentioned).
  • If the user inputs the wrong username or password.

Now the error ‘Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ is extensively of two types:

  • access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: yes)
  • access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: no)

The former error message is thrown up when the root user tries to access the MySQL database with the password ‘yes’, which is wrong or different from the original password. Similarly, the latter error message occurs when the root user enters the password as ‘no’, which is incorrect.

Now that you know what could possibly be restraining you from accessing the database and throwing the message ‘Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’, below we look at X solutions to fix the same.

Solution:

In theory, it is the lack of permissions that throw the error ‘Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’. To provide all the permissions to the root user, you can use the ‘grant’ command to add privileges. Use the following chain of commands to grant privileges to the root user:

mysql> CREATE USER ‘root’@’localhost’ IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY ‘password’;

or

mysql> ALTER USER ‘root’@’localhost’ IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY ‘password’;

mysql> grant all privileges on *.* to ‘root’@’localhost’ identified by ‘password’ with grant option;

mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

To take away the privileges and revert the changes, you can use the ‘revoke’ command. The ‘revoke’ command will do exactly what it sounds like: revoke all the privileges from the root user once you choose to remove the permissions/privileges.

Solution:

If your MySQL 5.7 (or higher version) is running in Ubuntu systems, the root user is to be authenticated using not the password but the auth_sccket plugin by default.

Although this can come in handy and provide great usability and security, it can cause difficulty when you are trying to allow programs from the outside, such as phpMyAdmin, to access the user.

The main solution to this is to connect MySQL as root by switching authentication from auth_socket to mysql_native_password in the terminal:

sudo mysql

  • ALTER USER command to configure the root account and change the authentication type to password.

ALTER USER ‘root’@’localhost’ IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY ‘password’;

  • FLUSH PRIVILEGES; in the command prompt.

SELECT user,authentication_string,plugin,host FROM mysql.user;

  • Once confirmed, exit MySQL shell using

exit

Solution:

This method works specifically for all macOS users.

  • Firstly, install a version of MySQL that is compatible with your MacOS’s version.

root <root-password>

  • Select Use Legacy Password Encryption from the two options available, the other one being Use Strong Password Encryption.
  • Using the search tool, openMySQL.prefPane and select the configuration tab.
  • Click ‘Select’ option of the ‘Configuration File’ and select/private/etc/my.cnf

[mysqld]

skip-grant-tables

With skipping the grant table, you can log in from anywhere and do almost anything on the database server.

  • Next, restart MySQL as follows:

ps aux | grep mysql

kill -9

  • Upon restarting, run the following command to fix the error:

/usr/local/mysql—macos-x86_64/bin/mysql -uroot -p

Solution:

As we mentioned previously, you could be facing the error because you have been feeding the server the wrong password. Whether you don’t know the password or forgot the correct one, here is how you can reset it, so you can access the MySQL database as a root user again:

  • /etc/mysql/my.cnf from Configuration File. Now add ‘skip-grant-tables’ mysqld] section. Note that ‘skip-grant-tables’ is dangerous; therefore make sure to remove it towards the end of the solution.
  • Restart MySQL with the command given below:

service mysql restart

  • Since you have added the line of code ‘skip-grant-tables‘ already, you will be able to log in since MySQL will be skipping the grant-tables. Use the command below to log in:

mysql -u root

  • Once logged in, flush privileges that are restraining you from accessing the database originally using the command below:

mysql&gt; flush privileges;

  • Now, set a new password using the command below:

Password=PASSWORD(‘my_password’) where USER=’root’;

FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

  • Since you have already reset the password, it is time to remove ‘skip-grant-tablesetc/mysql/my.cnf
  • Restart MySQL again and log in using the new password. The service will no longer show the error.

FAQs

1. Where is the MYSQL error log?

Error logs are one of the most important logs in terms of IT operations because it helps in detecting and diagnosing functional problems that simply improves performance.

The MYSQL error log basically contains error messages, warnings and different notes which are created during the startup and shutdown phases.

MYSQL error logging is always enabled and allows the users to set destination, verbosity levels and time zone.

A file or the console is a general location or, say, destination of error logs. When no location is specified, then in windows, the error logs are written to host_name.err ( host_name is the host system name) in the data directory, whereas in UNIX/Linux, the console is the default destination of errors.

A user can change the destination of error logs by specifying the location in the –log-error option (i.e., –log-error=”G:/TMP/mysql_logs/mysql_error.err” or –log-error=/var/log/mysql/error.log).

How to change the root password for MySQL?

To change the root password in MySQL:

  • ~/mysql-pwd
  • Stop MYSQL withsudo systemctl stop mysqlcommand and then issue the command:sudo mysqld -init-file=~/mysql-pwd. As the command prompt returns, restart the MYSQL using thesudo systemctl start mysql

How to recover the root password for MySQL?

To recover the root password in MySQL:

  • sudo service mysql stopcommand to stop the MYSQL server.
  • mysql -u root

mysql&gt; use mysql;

​mysql> update user set authentication_string=password(‘NEWPASSWORD’) where user=’root’;

​mysql&gt; flush privileges;

​mysql> quit

Note: In the above commands, NEWPASSWORD is the new password to be used.

  • Restart the MYSQL daemon usingsudo service mysql restartand log in with the new password.

Project Setup

Create a new project directory along with a new Django project:

$ mkdir django-on-docker   django-on-docker
$ mkdir app   app
$ python3.9 -m venv env
$  env/bin/activate
env$

env$ pip install .2.6
env$ django-admin.py startproject hello_django .
env$ python manage.py migrate
env$ python manage.py runserver

Navigate to http://localhost:8000/ to view the Django welcome screen. Kill the server once done. Then, exit from and remove the virtual environment. We now have a simple Django project to work with.

Create a requirements.txt file in the «app» directory and add Django as a dependency:

Since we’ll be moving to Postgres, go ahead and remove the db.sqlite3 file from the «app» directory.

Your project directory should look like:

└── app
    ├── hello_django
    │   ├── __init__.py
    │   ├── asgi.py
    │   ├── settings.py
    │   ├── urls.py
    │   └── wsgi.py
    ├── manage.py
    └── requirements.txt

Docker

Install Docker, if you don’t already have it, then add a Dockerfile to the «app» directory:

# pull official base image
 

# set work directory
 

# set environment variables
 PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE 
 PYTHONUNBUFFERED 

# install dependencies
 pip install --upgrade pip
 ./requirements.txt .
 pip install -r requirements.txt

# copy project
 . .

So, we started with an Alpine-based Docker image for Python 3.9.6. We then set a working directory along with two environment variables:

  1. PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE: Prevents Python from writing pyc files to disc (equivalent to python -B option)
  2. PYTHONUNBUFFERED: Prevents Python from buffering stdout and stderr (equivalent to python -u option)

Finally, we updated Pip, copied over the requirements.txt file, installed the dependencies, and copied over the Django project itself.

Next, add a docker-compose.yml file to the project root:

 


  
     
     python manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:8000
    
       
    
       
    
       

Review the Compose file reference for info on how this file works.

Update the SECRET_KEY, DEBUG, and ALLOWED_HOSTS variables in settings.py:

  

   

# 'DJANGO_ALLOWED_HOSTS' should be a single string of hosts with a space between each.

  

Make sure to add the import to the top:

Then, create a .env.dev file in the project root to store environment variables for development:

DEBUG=1
SECRET_KEY=foo
DJANGO_ALLOWED_HOSTS=localhost 127.0.0.1 [::1]

Build the image:

Once the image is built, run the container:

Navigate to http://localhost:8000/ to again view the welcome screen.

Check for errors in the logs if this doesn’t work via docker-compose logs -f.

To configure Postgres, we’ll need to add a new service to the docker-compose.yml file, update the Django settings, and install Psycopg2.

First, add a new service called db to docker-compose.yml:

 


  
     
     python manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:8000
    
       
    
       
    
       
    
       
  
     
    
       
    
       
       
       


  

To persist the data beyond the life of the container we configured a volume. This config will bind postgres_data to the «/var/lib/postgresql/data/» directory in the container.

We also added an environment key to define a name for the default database and set a username and password.

We’ll need some new environment variables for the web service as well, so update .env.dev like so:

DEBUG=1
SECRET_KEY=foo
DJANGO_ALLOWED_HOSTS=localhost 127.0.0.1 [::1]
SQL_ENGINE=django.db.backends.postgresql
SQL_DATABASE=hello_django_dev
SQL_USER=hello_django
SQL_PASSWORD=hello_django
SQL_HOST=db
SQL_PORT=5432

Update the DATABASES dict in settings.py:

  
     
          
            
          
          
          
          
    

Here, the database is configured based on the environment variables that we just defined. Take note of the default values.

Update the Dockerfile to install the appropriate packages required for Psycopg2:

# pull official base image
 

# set work directory
 

# set environment variables
 PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE 
 PYTHONUNBUFFERED 

# install psycopg2 dependencies
 apk update 
     apk add postgresql-dev gcc python3-dev musl-dev

# install dependencies
 pip install --upgrade pip
 ./requirements.txt .
 pip install -r requirements.txt

# copy project
 . .

Add Psycopg2 to requirements.txt:

Django==3.2.6
psycopg2-binary==2.9.1

Build the new image and spin up the two containers:

$ docker-compose up -d --build

Run the migrations:

$ docker-compose  web python manage.py migrate --noinput
django.db.utils.OperationalError: FATAL:  database  does not exist

Run docker-compose down -v to remove the volumes along with the containers. Then, re-build the images, run the containers, and apply the migrations.

Ensure the default Django tables were created:

$ docker-compose  db psql --usernamehello_django --dbnamehello_django_dev

psql .0
Type   help.


                                          List of databases
       Name           Owner      Encoding   Collate      Ctype           Access privileges
------------------+--------------+----------+------------+------------+-------------------------------
 hello_django_dev  hello_django  UTF8      en_US.utf8  en_US.utf8 
 postgres          hello_django  UTF8      en_US.utf8  en_US.utf8 
 template0         hello_django  UTF8      en_US.utf8  en_US.utf8  c/hello_django              +
                                                                   CTc/hello_django
 template1         hello_django  UTF8      en_US.utf8  en_US.utf8  c/hello_django              +
                                                                   CTc/hello_django
 rows

# \c hello_django_dev
You are now connected to database  as user .


                     List of relations
 Schema             Name             Type      Owner
--------+----------------------------+-------+--------------
 public  auth_group                  table  hello_django
 public  auth_group_permissions      table  hello_django
 public  auth_permission             table  hello_django
 public  auth_user                   table  hello_django
 public  auth_user_groups            table  hello_django
 public  auth_user_user_permissions  table  hello_django
 public  django_admin_log            table  hello_django
 public  django_content_type         table  hello_django
 public  django_migrations           table  hello_django
 public  django_session              table  hello_django
 rows


You can check that the volume was created as well by running:

$ docker volume inspect django-on-docker_postgres_data

You should see something similar to:


    
        : ,
        : ,
        : 
            : ,
            : ,
            : 
        ,
        : ,
        : ,
        : null,
        : 
    

Next, add an entrypoint.sh file to the «app» directory to verify that Postgres is healthy before applying the migrations and running the Django development server:



     

     

     ! nc -z   
      sleep .1
    

     


python manage.py flush --no-input
python manage.py migrate

 

Update the file permissions locally:

$ chmod +x app/entrypoint.sh

Then, update the Dockerfile to copy over the entrypoint.sh file and run it as the Docker entrypoint command:

# pull official base image
 

# set work directory
 

# set environment variables
 PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE 
 PYTHONUNBUFFERED 

# install psycopg2 dependencies
 apk update 
     apk add postgresql-dev gcc python3-dev musl-dev

# install dependencies
 pip install --upgrade pip
 ./requirements.txt .
 pip install -r requirements.txt

# copy entrypoint.sh
 ./entrypoint.sh .
 sed -i  /usr/src/app/entrypoint.sh
 chmod +x /usr/src/app/entrypoint.sh

# copy project
 . .

# run entrypoint.sh
 

Add the DATABASE environment variable to .env.dev:

DEBUG=1
SECRET_KEY=foo
DJANGO_ALLOWED_HOSTS=localhost 127.0.0.1 [::1]
SQL_ENGINE=django.db.backends.postgresql
SQL_DATABASE=hello_django_dev
SQL_USER=hello_django
SQL_PASSWORD=hello_django
SQL_HOST=db
SQL_PORT=5432
DATABASE=postgres

Test it out again:

  1. Re-build the images
  2. Run the containers
  3. Try http://localhost:8000/

Notes

First, despite adding Postgres, we can still create an independent Docker image for Django as long as the DATABASE environment variable is not set to postgres. To test, build a new image and then run a new container:

$ docker build -f ./app/Dockerfile -t hello_django:latest ./app
$ docker run -d 
    -p :8000 
    -e  -e  -e  
    hello_django python /usr/src/app/manage.py runserver .0.0.0:8000

You should be able to view the welcome page at http://localhost:8006

Second, you may want to comment out the database flush and migrate commands in the entrypoint.sh script so they don’t run on every container start or re-start:



     

     

     ! nc -z   
      sleep .1
    

     


# python manage.py flush --no-input
# python manage.py migrate

 

Instead, you can run them manually, after the containers spin up, like so:

$ docker-compose  web python manage.py flush --no-input
$ docker-compose  web python manage.py migrate

Gunicorn

Moving along, for production environments, let’s add Gunicorn, a production-grade WSGI server, to the requirements file:

Django==3.2.6
gunicorn==20.1.0
psycopg2-binary==2.9.1

Curious about WSGI and Gunicorn? Review the WSGI chapter from the Building Your Own Python Web Framework course.

Since we still want to use Django’s built-in server in development, create a new compose file called docker-compose.prod.yml for production:

 


  
     
     gunicorn hello_django.wsgi:application --bind 0.0.0.0:8000
    
       
    
       
    
       
  
     
    
       
    
       


  

If you have multiple environments, you may want to look at using a docker-compose.override.yml configuration file. With this approach, you’d add your base config to a docker-compose.yml file and then use a docker-compose.override.yml file to override those config settings based on the environment.

Take note of the default command. We’re running Gunicorn rather than the Django development server. We also removed the volume from the web service since we don’t need it in production. Finally, we’re using separate environment variable files to define environment variables for both services that will be passed to the container at runtime.

Дополнительно:  Почему постоянно выключается ноутбук, причины и решения

.env.prod:

DEBUG=0
SECRET_KEY=change_me
DJANGO_ALLOWED_HOSTS=localhost 127.0.0.1 [::1]
SQL_ENGINE=django.db.backends.postgresql
SQL_DATABASE=hello_django_prod
SQL_USER=hello_django
SQL_PASSWORD=hello_django
SQL_HOST=db
SQL_PORT=5432
DATABASE=postgres

.env.prod.db:

POSTGRES_USER=hello_django
POSTGRES_PASSWORD=hello_django
POSTGRES_DB=hello_django_prod

Add the two files to the project root. You’ll probably want to keep them out of version control, so add them to a .gitignore file.

Bring down the development containers (and the associated volumes with the -v flag):

Then, build the production images and spin up the containers:

$ docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml up -d --build

Verify that the hello_django_prod database was created along with the default Django tables. Test out the admin page at http://localhost:8000/admin. The static files are not being loaded anymore. This is expected since Debug mode is off. We’ll fix this shortly.

Again, if the container fails to start, check for errors in the logs via docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml logs -f.

Production Dockerfile

Did you notice that we’re still running the database flush (which clears out the database) and migrate commands every time the container is run? This is fine in development, but let’s create a new entrypoint file for production.

entrypoint.prod.sh:



     

     

     ! nc -z   
      sleep .1
    

     


 

Update the file permissions locally:

$ chmod +x app/entrypoint.prod.sh

To use this file, create a new Dockerfile called Dockerfile.prod for use with production builds:


# BUILDER #


# pull official base image
   

# set work directory
 

# set environment variables
 PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE 
 PYTHONUNBUFFERED 

# install psycopg2 dependencies
 apk update 
     apk add postgresql-dev gcc python3-dev musl-dev


 pip install --upgrade pip
 pip install .9.2
 . .
 flake8 --ignoreE501,F401 .

# install dependencies
 ./requirements.txt .
 pip wheel --no-cache-dir --no-deps --wheel-dir /usr/src/app/wheels -r requirements.txt



# FINAL #


# pull official base image
 


 mkdir -p /home/app


 addgroup -S app  adduser -S app -G app

# create the appropriate directories
 /home/app
 /home/app/web
 mkdir 
 

# install dependencies
 apk update  apk add libpq
 --frombuilder /usr/src/app/wheels /wheels
 --frombuilder /usr/src/app/requirements.txt .
 pip install --no-cache /wheels/*

# copy entrypoint.prod.sh
 ./entrypoint.prod.sh .
 sed -i   /entrypoint.prod.sh
 chmod +x  /entrypoint.prod.sh

# copy project
 . 


 chown -R app:app 


 

# run entrypoint.prod.sh
 

Here, we used a Docker multi-stage build to reduce the final image size. Essentially, builder is a temporary image that’s used for building the Python wheels. The wheels are then copied over to the final production image and the builder image is discarded.

You could take the multi-stage build approach a step further and use a single Dockerfile instead of creating two Dockerfiles. Think of the pros and cons of using this approach over two different files.

Did you notice that we created a non-root user? By default, Docker runs container processes as root inside of a container. This is a bad practice since attackers can gain root access to the Docker host if they manage to break out of the container. If you’re root in the container, you’ll be root on the host.

Update the web service within the docker-compose.prod.yml file to build with Dockerfile.prod:


  
     
     
   gunicorn hello_django.wsgi:application --bind 0.0.0.0:8000
  
     
  
     
  
     

Try it out:

$ docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml down -v
$ docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml up -d --build
$ docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml  web python manage.py migrate --noinput

Nginx

Next, let’s add Nginx into the mix to act as a reverse proxy for Gunicorn to handle client requests as well as serve up static files.

Add the service to docker-compose.prod.yml:


   
  
     
  
     

Then, in the local project root, create the following files and folders:

└── nginx
    ├── Dockerfile
    └── nginx.conf

Dockerfile:

 

 rm /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf
 nginx.conf /etc/nginx/conf.d

nginx.conf:

upstream hello_django 
    server web:8000


server 

    listen 

    location / 
        proxy_pass http://hello_django
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For 
        proxy_set_header Host 
        proxy_redirect off
    


Then, update the web service, in docker-compose.prod.yml, replacing ports with expose:


  
     
     
   gunicorn hello_django.wsgi:application --bind 0.0.0.0:8000
  
     
  
     
  
     

Now, port 8000 is only exposed internally, to other Docker services. The port will no longer be published to the host machine.

Test it out again.

$ docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml down -v
$ docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml up -d --build
$ docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml  web python manage.py migrate --noinput

Ensure the app is up and running at http://localhost:1337.

Your project structure should now look like:

├── .env.dev
├── .env.prod
├── .env.prod.db
├── .gitignore
├── app
│   ├── Dockerfile
│   ├── Dockerfile.prod
│   ├── entrypoint.prod.sh
│   ├── entrypoint.sh
│   ├── hello_django
│   │   ├── __init__.py
│   │   ├── asgi.py
│   │   ├── settings.py
│   │   ├── urls.py
│   │   └── wsgi.py
│   ├── manage.py
│   └── requirements.txt
├── docker-compose.prod.yml
├── docker-compose.yml
└── nginx
    ├── Dockerfile
    └── nginx.conf

Bring the containers down once done:

$ docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml down -v

Since Gunicorn is an application server, it will not serve up static files. So, how should both static and media files be handled in this particular configuration?

Static Files

Update settings.py:

  
  BASE_DIR / 

Development

Now, any request to http://localhost:8000/static/* will be served from the «staticfiles» directory.

To test, first re-build the images and spin up the new containers per usual. Ensure static files are still being served correctly at http://localhost:8000/admin.

Production

For production, add a volume to the web and nginx services in docker-compose.prod.yml so that each container will share a directory named «staticfiles»:

 


  
    
       
       
     gunicorn hello_django.wsgi:application --bind 0.0.0.0:8000
    
       
    
       
    
       
    
       
  
     
    
       
    
       
  
     
    
       
    
       
    
       


  
  

We need to also create the «/home/app/web/staticfiles» folder in Dockerfile.prod:

...

# create the appropriate directories
 /home/app
 /home/app/web
 mkdir 
 mkdir /staticfiles
 

...

Why is this necessary?

Docker Compose normally mounts named volumes as root. And since we’re using a non-root user, we’ll get a permission denied error when the collectstatic command is run if the directory does not already exist

To get around this, you can either:

  1. Create the folder in the Dockerfile (source)
  2. Change the permissions of the directory after it’s mounted (source)

We used the former.

Next, update the Nginx configuration to route static file requests to the «staticfiles» folder:

upstream hello_django 
    server web:8000


server 

    listen 

    location / 
        proxy_pass http://hello_django
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For 
        proxy_set_header Host 
        proxy_redirect off
    

    location /static/ 
         /home/app/web/staticfiles/
    


Spin down the development containers:

Test:

$ docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml up -d --build
$ docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml  web python manage.py migrate --noinput
$ docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml  web python manage.py collectstatic --no-input --clear

Again, requests to http://localhost:1337/static/* will be served from the «staticfiles» directory.

Navigate to http://localhost:1337/admin and ensure the static assets load correctly.

You can also verify in the logs — via docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml logs -f — that requests to the static files are served up successfully via Nginx:

nginx_1   .168.144.1 - - /Aug/2021:20:11:00 +0000     "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_15_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/92.0.4515.159 Safari/537.36" 
nginx_1   .168.144.1 - - /Aug/2021:20:11:00 +0000     "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_15_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/92.0.4515.159 Safari/537.36" 
nginx_1   .168.144.1 - - /Aug/2021:20:11:00 +0000     "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_15_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/92.0.4515.159 Safari/537.36" 
nginx_1   .168.144.1 - - /Aug/2021:20:11:00 +0000     "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_15_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/92.0.4515.159 Safari/537.36" 
nginx_1   .168.144.1 - - /Aug/2021:20:11:00 +0000     "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_15_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/92.0.4515.159 Safari/537.36" 
nginx_1   .168.144.1 - - /Aug/2021:20:11:00 +0000     "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_15_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/92.0.4515.159 Safari/537.36" 
nginx_1   .168.144.1 - - /Aug/2021:20:11:00 +0000     "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_15_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/92.0.4515.159 Safari/537.36" 
nginx_1   .168.144.1 - - /Aug/2021:20:11:00 +0000     "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_15_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/92.0.4515.159 Safari/537.36" 
nginx_1   .168.144.1 - - /Aug/2021:20:11:00 +0000     "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_15_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/92.0.4515.159 Safari/537.36" 
nginx_1   .168.144.1 - - /Aug/2021:20:11:00 +0000     "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_15_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/92.0.4515.159 Safari/537.36" 

Bring the containers once done:

$ docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml down -v

To test out the handling of media files, start by creating a new Django app:

$ docker-compose up -d --build
$ docker-compose  web python manage.py startapp upload

Add the new app to the INSTALLED_APPS list in settings.py:

  
    
    
    
    
    
    

    

app/upload/views.py:

   
   


 
         
          
          
           
          
        
           
             
        
      

Add a «templates», directory to the «app/upload» directory, and then add a new template called upload.html:

{% block content %}

      
    {% csrf_token %}
      
       
  

  {% if image_url %}
    File uploaded at:  {{ image_url }}
  {% endif %}

{% endblock %}

app/hello_django/urls.py:

   
   
   
   

   

  
      
     


 
       

app/hello_django/settings.py:

  
    

Development

Test:

$ docker-compose up -d --build

You should be able to upload an image at http://localhost:8000/, and then view the image at http://localhost:8000/media/IMAGE_FILE_NAME.

Production

For production, add another volume to the web and nginx services:

 


  
    
       
       
     gunicorn hello_django.wsgi:application --bind 0.0.0.0:8000
    
       
       
    
       
    
       
    
       
  
     
    
       
    
       
  
     
    
       
       
    
       
    
       


  
  
  

Create the «/home/app/web/mediafiles» folder in Dockerfile.prod:

...

# create the appropriate directories
 /home/app
 /home/app/web
 mkdir 
 mkdir /staticfiles
 mkdir /mediafiles
 

...

Update the Nginx config again:

upstream hello_django 
    server web:8000


server 

    listen 

    location / 
        proxy_pass http://hello_django
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For 
        proxy_set_header Host 
        proxy_redirect off
    

    location /static/ 
         /home/app/web/staticfiles/
    

    location /media/ 
         /home/app/web/mediafiles/
    


Re-build:

$ docker-compose down -v

$ docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml up -d --build
$ docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml  web python manage.py migrate --noinput
$ docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml  web python manage.py collectstatic --no-input --clear

Test it out one final time:

  1. Upload an image at http://localhost:1337/.
  2. Then, view the image at http://localhost:1337/media/IMAGE_FILE_NAME.

If you see an 413 Request Entity Too Large error, you’ll need to increase the maximum allowed size of the client request body in either the server or location context within the Nginx config.

location / 
    proxy_pass http://hello_django
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For 
    proxy_set_header Host 
    proxy_redirect off
    client_max_body_size 100M

Objectives

By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to:

  1. Explain what Vault is and why you may want to use it
  2. Describe the basic Vault architecture along with dynamic and static secrets, the various backends (storage, secret, auth, audit), and how Vault can be used as an «encryption as a service»
  3. Configure and run Vault and Consul with Docker
  4. Spin up Vault with the Filesystem backend
  5. Init and unseal Vault
  6. Authenticate against Vault
  7. Configure an Audit backend to log all interactions with Vault
  8. Work with static and dynamic secrets via the CLI, HTTP API, and UI
  9. Create a Vault policy to limit access to a specific path
  10. Use the Transit backend as an «encryption as a service»
  11. Set up Consul to work with Vault as Storage backend for secrets
  12. Define a custom lease period for a secret and revoke a secret before the end of that period

What is Vault?

Vault is an open-source tool used for securely storing and managing secrets.

Take a moment to think about how your team currently manages and distributes secrets:

  1. Who has access to them?
  2. Who manages them?
  3. How do you control who has access to them?
  4. How do your apps get them?
  5. How are they updated?
  6. How are they revoked?

Vault provides answers to those questions and helps to solve the following problems with regard to secret management:

ProblemsVault’s Goals
Secrets are everywhere.Vault is the single source of truth for all secrets.
They are generally unencrypted.Vault manages encryption (during transit and at rest) out of the box.
It’s difficult to dynamically generate them.Secrets can be dynamically generated.
It’s even more difficult to lease and revoke them.Secrets can be leased and revoked.
There’s no audit trail.There’s an audit trail for generating and using secrets.

Vault has a number of moving pieces so it can take some time to get up to speed with the overall architecture. Take a moment to review the Architecture guide, taking note of the following backends:

BackendUseExamples
StorageWhere secrets are storedConsul*, Filesystem*, In-Memory, PostgreSQL, S3
SecretHandles static or dynamic secretsAWS*, Databases, Key/Value*, RabbitMQ, SSH
AuthHandles authentication and authorizationAWS, Azure, Google Cloud, GitHub, Tokens*, Username & Password
AuditLogs all requests and responsesFile*, Syslog, Socket

* used in this tutorial

With that, let’s start using Vault.

Auditing

Before we test out the functionality, let’s enable an Audit Device:

bash-5.1# vault audit  file /vault/logs/audit.log

Success! Enabled the file audit device at: file/

You should now be able to view the logs locally in «vault/logs». To test, run the following command to view all enabled Audit Devices:

bash-5.1# vault audit list

Path     Type    Description
----     ----    -----------
file/    file    n/a

The request and subsequent response should be logged in vault/logs/audit.log. Take a look.

There are two types of secrets in Vault: static and dynamic.

  1. Dynamic secrets are generated on demand. They have enforced leases and generally expire after a short period of time. Since they do not exist until they are accessed, there’s less exposure — so dynamic secrets are much more secure. Vault ships with a number of dynamic backends — i.e., AWS, Databases, Google Cloud, Consul, and RabbitMQ.

Static Secrets

Vault can be managed through the CLI, HTTP API, or UI.

CLI

Still within the bash session in the container, we can create, read, update, and delete secrets. We’ll also look at how to version and roll back secrets.

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Enable secrets with following command:

bash-5.1# vault secrets  kv

Success! Enabled the kv secrets engine at: kv/

Create a new secret with a key of bar and value of precious within the kv/foo path:

bash-5.1# vault kv put kv/foo precious

Success! Data written to: kv/foo

Read:

bash-5.1# vault kv get kv/foo

  
Key    Value
---    -----
bar    precious

To work with different versions of a specific key, we’ll need to upgrade to v2 of the Key/Value backend:

bash-5.1# vault kv enable-versioning kv/

Success! Tuned the secrets engine at: kv/

Add version 2 by updating the value to copper:

bash-5.1# vault kv put kv/foo copper

Key              Value
---              -----
created_time     -09-08T18:23:14.4154928Z
deletion_time    n/a
destroyed        
version          

Read version 1:

bash-5.1# vault kv get -version kv/foo

  
Key              Value
---              -----
created_time     -09-08T18:22:37.2548824Z
deletion_time    n/a
destroyed        
version          

  
Key    Value
---    -----
bar    precious

Read version 2:

bash-5.1# vault kv get -version kv/foo

  
Key              Value
---              -----
created_time     -09-08T18:23:14.4154928Z
deletion_time    n/a
destroyed        
version          

  
Key    Value
---    -----
bar    copper

Delete the latest version (e.g., version 2):

bash-5.1# vault kv delete kv/foo

Success! Data deleted  it existed at: kv/foo

Delete version 1:

bash-5.1# vault kv delete -versions kv/foo

Success! Data deleted  it existed at: kv/foo

You can undelete as well:

bash-5.1# vault kv undelete -versions kv/foo

Success! Data written to: kv/undelete/foo

Delete is akin to a soft delete. If you want to remove the underlying metadata, you’ll have to use the destroy command:

bash-5.1# vault kv destroy -versions kv/foo

Success! Data written to: kv/destroy/foo

Review v1 and v2 to view all the available commands.

Take note of the audit log. Each of the above requests were logged!

API

You can also interact with Vault via the HTTP API. We’ll make requests against v2 of the API. Open a new terminal tab, and then set the root token as an environment variable:

$  your_token_goes_here

Create a new secret called foo with a value of world:

$ curl 
    -H  
    -H  
    -X POST 
    -d  
    http://127.0.0.1:8200/v1/kv/data/hello

Read the secret:

$ curl 
    -H  
    -X GET 
    http://127.0.0.1:8200/v1/kv/data/hello

The JSON response should contain a data key with a value similar to:

: 
  :
    : 
  ,
  : 
    : ,
    : ,
    : false,
    : 
  

vault api

Try adding new versions, deleting, and destroying on your own.

The UI should be up at running at http://localhost:8200/ui/vault. Use the root token to login. Then, explore the Key/Value backend on your own:

vault ui

Policies

Thus far we’ve been using the root policy to interact with the API. Let’s set up a policy that only has read access.

Add a new config file called app-policy.json to «vault/policies»:


   
     
       
    
  

Create a new policy back in the bash session:

bash-5.1# vault policy write app /vault/policies/app-policy.json

Success! Uploaded policy: app

Then, create a new token:

bash-5.1# vault token create -policyapp

Key                  Value
---                  -----
token                s.ZOUMx3RIhVRhI4ijlZg8KXRQ
token_accessor       TT53xOxbIfGjI7l4392gjXcg
token_duration       768h
token_renewable      
token_policies        
identity_policies    
policies              

Within another new terminal tab (you should now have three), add the VAULT_TOKEN environment variable with the new token:

$  your_token_goes_here

Try to read the foo secret that we previously set:

$ curl 
    -H  
    -X GET 
    http://127.0.0.1:8200/v1/kv/data/hello

You should not have the correct permissions to view that secret:


  :
    "1 error occurred:\n\t* permission denied\n\n"
  

Why can’t we even read it? Jump back to the policy config in vault-config.json. kv/data/app/* indicates that the policy can only read from the app path.

As you’ve probably already noticed, nearly everything in Vault is path-based.

Back within the bash session in the container, add a new secret to the app/test path:

bash-5.1# vault kv put kv/app/test pong

Key              Value
---              -----
created_time     -09-08T18:40:35.2694047Z
deletion_time    n/a
destroyed        
version          

You should be able to view the secret using the token associated with the app policy:

$ curl 
    -H  
    -X GET 
    http://127.0.0.1:8200/v1/kv/data/app/test

Policies can be managed from the UI as well:

vault ui

Encryption as a Service

Before we look at dynamic secrets, let’s quickly review the Transit backend, which can be used as an «encryption as a service» for:

  • Encrypting and decrypting data «in-transit» without storing it inside Vault
  • Easily integrating encryption into your application workflow

Back within the bash session in the container, enable Transit:

bash-5.1# vault secrets  transit

Success! Enabled the transit secrets engine at: transit/

Configure a named encryption key:

bash-5.1# vault write -f transit/keys/foo

Success! Data written to: transit/keys/foo

Encrypt:

bash-5.1# vault write transit/encrypt/foo base64  

Key           Value
---           -----
ciphertext    vault:v1:cFnk5AQLE9Mg+mZ7Ej17vRmYT5aqheikdZQ1FC4vre5jAod0L/uHDA

Decrypt:

bash-5.1# vault write transit/decrypt/foo vault:v1:cFnk5AQLE9Mg+mZ7Ej17vRmYT5aqheikdZQ1FC4vre5jAod0L/uHDA

Key          Value
---          -----
plaintext    bXkgcHJlY2lvdXMK

Decode:

bash-5.1# base64 -d  

my precious

Test it out in the UI as well:

vault ui

Dynamic Secrets

As mentioned, Vault supports a number of dynamic secret backends for generating secrets dynamically when needed. For example, with the AWS and Google Cloud backends, you can create access credentials based on IAM policies. The Databases backend, meanwhile, generates database credentials based on configured roles.

Dynamic Secrets:

  • are generated on demand
  • have limited access based on role
  • are leased for a period of time
  • can be revoked
  • come with an audit trail

Let’s look at how to generate AWS credentials using the AWS backend.

AWS Credentials

Enable the AWS secrets backend:

bash-5.1# vault secrets  -pathaws aws

Success! Enabled the aws secrets engine at: aws/

Authenticate:

bash-5.1# vault write aws/config/root foo bar

Success! Data written to: aws/config/root

Make sure to replace foo and bar with your AWS access key id and secret key, respectively.

Create role:

bash-5.1# vault write aws/roles/ec2-read iam_user -

















Success! Data written to: aws/roles/ec2-read

Here, we created a new role based on AmazonEC2ReadOnlyAccess, which is an AWS-managed policy. As the name suggests, it give users read-only access to the EC2 console; they cannot perform any actions or create new resources. You can also use an inline policy to create a custom role based on your individual needs. We’ll look at an example of this shortly. Refer to the AWS Secrets Engine docs for more info.

Remember: Dynamic Secrets are generated only when they are requested (i.e., a web app requests access to S3). They are not available in the store before this.

Create a new set of credentials:

bash-5.1# vault  aws/creds/ec2-read

Key                Value
---                -----
lease_id           aws/creds/ec2-read/9KdO6J7KVBiSwOPEvwrqqALG
lease_duration     768h
lease_renewable    
access_key         AKIAZ4DZAKZKEULSDW5A
secret_key         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
security_token     <nil>

You should now be able to see the user within the «Users» section on the IAM console on AWS:

aws iam

Leases and Revocation

In this section, we’ll take a quick look at how to define a custom lease period and revoke a secret before the end of that period.

Create a new AWS role:

bash-5.1# vault write aws/roles/foo iam_user -

















Success! Data written to: aws/roles/foo

Take note of the lease_duration when you create a new AWS credential:

bash-5.1# vault  aws/creds/foo

Key                Value
---                -----
lease_id           aws/creds/foo/F0oBbnBIHEoz0ywVVtbuJB7r
lease_duration     768h
lease_renewable    
access_key         AKIAZ4DZAKZKLJKB7CPX
secret_key         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
security_token     <nil>

What if you only wanted the lease period for all AWS IAM dynamic secrets to be 30 minutes?

bash-5.1# vault write aws/config/lease 1800s 1800s

In this example, since lease_max is the same as lease, you won’t be able to renew the token. If you set the lease_max to 3600s, you’d be able to renew the lease once. For more, review the Tokens and Leases guide.

Create a new credential:

bash-5.1# vault  aws/creds/foo

Key                Value
---                -----
lease_id           aws/creds/foo/xQlJpKDS1ljE9Awz0aywXgbB
lease_duration     30m
lease_renewable    
access_key         AKIAZ4DZAKZKJPL5OM5W
secret_key         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
security_token     <nil>

Want to quickly revoke this credential? Grab the lease_id and then run:

bash-5.1# vault lease revoke aws/creds/foo/xQlJpKDS1ljE9Awz0aywXgbB

Want to revoke all AWS creds?

bash-5.1# vault lease revoke -prefix aws/

Refer to the Lease, Renew, and Revoke guide for more info these concepts.

Access denied for user ‘[email protected]’ (using password

I’m new to MySQL, I’m trying to run WordPress in my Windows desktop and it needs MySQL.

I install everything with Web Platform Installer which is provided by Microsoft. I never set a root password for MySQL and in the final step of installing WordPress, it asks for a MySQL server password.

What is the default password for root (if there is one) and how to change it?

I tried:

mysql -u root password '123'

But it shows me:

Access denied for user '[email protected]' (using password:NO)

After this I try:

mysql -u root -p

However, it asks for a password which I don’t have.


Update: as Bozho suggested, I did the following:

  1. I stopped the MySQL Service from Windows services
  2. Opened CMD
  3. Changed the location to c:\program files\mysql\bin
  4. Executed the command below

    mysqld —defaults-file=»C:\\program files\\mysql\\mysql server 5.1\\my.ini» —init-files=C:\\root.txt

  5. The command ran with a warning about character set which I mentioned below

  6. I start the MySQL service from Windows services
  7. I write in the command line

    mysql -u root -p
    EnterPassword: 123 // 123 was the password

How do I solve this? I’m waiting to hear from you.

Solutions

You can reset your root password. Have in mind that it is not advisable to use root without password.

for this kind of error; you just have to set new password to the root user as an admin. follow the steps as follows:

[root ~]# mysql -u root
ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost' (using password:NO)
  1. Stop the service/daemon of mysql running

    [root ~]# service mysql stop   
    mysql stop/waiting
    

At this moment, the terminal will seem to halt. Let that be, and use new terminal for next steps.

  1. mysql> use mysql;
    Database changed
    mysql> select * from  user;
    Empty set (0.00 sec)
    mysql> truncate table user;
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
    mysql> flush privileges;
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
    mysql> grant all privileges on *.* to [email protected] identified by 'YourNewPassword' with grant option;
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
    

*if you don`t want any password or rather an empty password

    mysql> grant all privileges on *.* to [email protected] identified by '' with grant option;
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)*
    mysql> flush privileges;
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

Confirm the results:

    mysql> select host, user from user;
+-----------+------+
| host      | user |
+-----------+------+
| localhost | root |
+-----------+------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
  1.  [root ~]# mysql -u root -pYourNewPassword 
     mysql> 
    

1) You can set root password by invoking MySQL console. It is located in

C:\wamp\bin\mysql\mysql5.1.53\bin by default.

Get to the directory and type MySQL. then set the password as follows..

    > SET PASSWORD FOR [email protected] = PASSWORD('new-password');

2) You can configure wamp’s phpmyadmin application for root user by editing

C:\wamp\apps\phpmyadmin3.3.9\config.inc.php 

Note :- if you are using xampp then , file will be located at

C:\xampp\phpMyadmin\config.inc.php

It looks like this:

        $cfg['Servers'][$i]['verbose'] = 'localhost';
        $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost';
        $cfg['Servers'][$i]['port'] = '';
        $cfg['Servers'][$i]['socket'] = '';
        $cfg['Servers'][$i]['connect_type'] = 'tcp';
        $cfg['Servers'][$i]['extension'] = 'mysqli';
        $cfg['Servers'][$i]['auth_type'] = 'config';
        $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'root';
        $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = 'YOURPASSWORD';
        $cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowNoPassword'] = false;

The error «Access denied for user ‘[email protected]‘ (using password:NO)»
will be resolved when you set $cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowNoPassword'] to false

If you priviously changed the password for ‘[email protected]‘, then you have to do 2 things to solve the error «Access denided for user ‘[email protected]‘»:

  1. if [‘password’] have a empty quotes like ‘ ‘ then put your password between quotes.
  2. change the (using password:NO) to (using password:YES)

This will resolve the error.

Note: phpmyadmin is a separate tool which comes with wamp.
It just provide a interface to MySQL. if you change my sql root’s password, then you should change the phpmyadmin configurations. Usually phpmyadmin is configured to root user.

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In the mysql client, tell the server to reload the grant tables so that account-management statements work: mysql&gt, FLUSH PRIVILEGES, Then change the ‘root’@’localhost’ account password . Replace the password with the password that you want to use

What is default MySQL root password?

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What is the default root password for MySQL in ubuntu?

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How do I change the root password in MySQL 8?

ALTER USER ‘root’@’localhost’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘new_password’, In the above change “new_password” with the password that you wish to use. This will start the MySQL service and during the process it will execute the init-file that you have created and thus the password for the root user will be updated

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