Plant Structure and Function. Is It a Stem, Leaf, Root, Flower, Fruit or Seed? Fruit


Crop Plant Forms- Identifying parts of flowering plants- Leaf, Root, Stem, flower (function of the parts required).

jss1  / Basic 7

Reference Materials :  .

Instructional Materials :..

Previous Knowledge :

The pupils have previous knowledge of

Forms/ Branches of Agriculture .(Livestock)

Behavioural Objectives :  At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to


CONTENT: i. Plant parts

ii. Functions of each plant parts.

Sub – Topic 1: Different parts of plants

Plant form refers to the shape of a plant. Flowering plants have two regions: the shoot region, which is found above the ground level and the root region which is found below the ground level.


Flowers, leaves, branches and stem comprise the shoot region or system while the different roots comprise the root regions system.

Differentiate between shoot system and root system and name their parts.

Plant Morphology is the study of the Parts of a Plant. These parts are Root, Shoot, Leaf, Flower & Fruit in flowering plants. Here we are going to discuss the morphology of root, stem, leaves, flowers and fruits. modifications, types, parts and functions of plant parts.

Morphology is the study of forms, structure and relative position of the different organ of plants

Every flowering plant consists of 5 parts

Parts of a Flowering Plant

The root is the descending portion of the plant axis. The root is positively geotropic and negatively phototropic structure of a plant. The root is a non-green structure which doesn’t have chlorophyll in normal cases. It is brown in colour

The root does not take part in the photosynthesis process in general. The root does not bear nodes, internodes, leaves and true buds. Lateral roots arise from the root which are endogenous in origin.

I) Parts of the root

A Stem Develops From The Plumule of The Germinating Seed of a Plant. Mostly it is the aerial Part of the Plant Body which Bears branches, leaves, flowers and fruits on it.

The stem is an ascending erect structure which grows away from the soil towards the light. It is negatively geotropic and positively phototropic structure of the plant. For growth, the stem bears a terminal bud on its apex.

The stem is differentiated into nodes and internodes in case of flowering plants. The point llof stem, where leaves are attached to the stem is called the node. Internode is the portion of the stem between the two nodes of the plant.

Leaves and branches of the stem are exogenous in origin. The young stem is green and photosynthetic structure. Hairs are multicellular if present.

I) Diverse Forms of Stem

The leaf is an important part of a plant which is responsible for photosynthesis in most of the plants. The leaf is a green, thin, flat expanded lateral appendages of the stem. it is born at a node and bear a bud in its axil.

Leaf develops from the leaf primordium of shoot Apex. It is exogenous in origin. The green colour of the leaf is due to the presence of a photosynthetic pigment called chlorophyll. The Green photosynthetic Leaves are collectively called foliage.

It is a lateral dissimilar appendage of the stem which always born at the node of a stem. Growth of leaves is limited. Apical bud is absent in leaves.

Parts of a Typical leaf

The flower is a modified shoot which is meant for sexual reproduction. The flower is present in only angiosperms plants. Bract, thalamus, perianth, calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium are important parts of a typical flower.

If a flower has stalk it is known as pedicellate. If there is no stalk, the flower is termed as a sessile flower. The flower is called complete if it bears all the floral parts and incomplete when one or more floral parts are absent.

The flowers are called bisexual if they bear both androecium and gynoecium. both types of flowers are present in Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis. This types of flower are also known as bisexual flowers. The unisexual flowers may be male flowers or female flowers. The male flowers are called staminate flowers because they have stamens only. the female flowers have only the carpels so it is called pistillate flowers. Those flowers which have Astral sex organs are called neutral flowers.

The fruit is fertilized ovary which is responsible for the formation of seed. The ovary develops into a fruit. The ovary wall at maturity forms the wall of the fruit which is known as pericarp.

Sometimes tepals, bracts, thalamus are also involved in the formation of fruit. Search fruits are called false fruits or pseudocarps.

The fate of various parts of the ovary during the formation of fruits

Types of fruits

There are three types of fruits

Simple fruits-

Simple fruits are formed from mono or polycarpellary syncarpous ovary. Simple fruits may be fleshy or dry. simple fruits are further divided into two categories.

A) Simple dry fruits

These fruits are formed from the polycarpellary apocarpous ovary. Each ripened is known as fruitlet. Example- custard apple

Compound fruits-

Multiple fruits develop from entire inflorescence is known as syconus or sorosis. Examples- mulberry, pineapple, Banyan Tree fruits etc

The study of various external features of the plant is known as plant morphology. The Angiosperm is characterized by the presence of roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. The main characteristics of angiosperm are:  In this article we are going to study the morphology of Angiosperms in detail including Modifications of Root, stems, leaves, types of seeds, etc.Study all topics of The root is the underground part of the plant and develops from the elongation of the radicle.There are four main functions of the root system: Absorption of water and minerals from the soilProviding a proper anchorage to the plant parts Storing reserve food material Synthesis of plant growth regulators.The apex of the root is covered by a thimble-like structure called root cap; it protects the tender apex of the root while making its way through the soil.Above the root cap is the region of meristematic activity having small cells with dense cytoplasm.The part above the region of meristematic activity is the region of elongation where cells undergo elongation and enlargement to increase the length of the root.The region of maturation contains root hairs that help in the absorption of water and minerals.Modification of RootsRoots are modified for storage, nitrogen fixation, aeration and support.The taproot of carrot, turnip, and adventitious root of sweet potato get swollen to store food.The Prop root of Banyan and Stilt root of maize and sugarcane have supporting roots coming out from the lower node of stems.In Rhizophora, Pneumatophores are present which help to get oxygen for respiration as it grows in swampy areas.Biomolecules: Organic and InorganicThe stem is the ascending part of the axis bearing branches, leaves, flowers and fruits. It develops from the plume of the embryo of a germinating seed. The stem bears nodes and internodes. The regions of the stem where leaves are born are called nodes while internodes are the portions between two nodes. The main function of the stem is spreading out branches, bearing leaves, flowers and fruits. Modification of StemRhizome Rhizomes are non-green with distinct nodes and internodes. These are brown in colour. Eg:  gingerBulbThe bulb may be tunicated. A sheath of dry membranous scale leaves protected the tunicate bulb. For example: onionTuberThe tuber is a fleshy part of the plant which stores food. For Example: PotatoStolonThey grow aerially for some time and then bend downwards to touch the ground. Stolon arises from the base of the stem. Eg: JasmineClimbersThe stem gets modified into a threadlike leafless structure called tendrils. These are meant for climbing.  Eg: PassifloraA flattened structure of a higher plant, typically green and blade-like, that is attached to a stem directly or via a stalk. Leaves are the main organs of photosynthesis and transpiration. A leaf consists of three parts- Leaf base, Petiole, Lamina. The leaf is attached with a stem by Leaf Base which may bear two small leaf-like structures called a stipule.The middle prominent vein is termed as the mid vein. Veins provide rigidity to the leaf blade and act as a channel for the transport of water and minerals.The arrangement of vein and veinlets in the lamina is known as venation.There are two types of venation:  Leaf having a single or undivided lamina is called a Simple leaf. The incisions do not touch the midrib. Example: Mango, Guava, etc.When the incision of the lamina reaches up to the midrib and breaks it into a number of leaflets, it is called Compound leaves.In Pinnately compound leaves, a number of leaflets are present on a common axis called rachis. Example:In Palmately compound leaves, the leaflets are attached at a common point.  Example:Scientific Names and Binomial NomenclatureModification of LeafLeaves are modified to perform other functions like being converted to tendril for climbing as in Peas and spines for defence in Cactus. Learn all about Respiration & Types of Respiration SSC CHSL Mock Test 2022-23 (Tier I & Tier II New Pattern) 60 Full Test (Tier II)8 PYP 2023 (CGL Tier II)50 Sectional Test (Tier II)+1572 more tests SSC CHSL Mock Test 2023 (Tier I & Tier II) English,Hindi + 6 More Available in: 126 Chapter Test (Tier I)55 Sectional Test (Tier I)35 Full Test (Tier I)+548 more tests Typing Test for All SSC Exams 8 SSC CHSL5 SSC CGLIt is the reproductive unit in the angiosperms. It is meant for sexual reproduction. A typical flower has four different kinds of whorls arranged successively on the swollen end of the stalk or pedicel, called the thalamus or receptacle. Calyx and CorollaCalyx and Corolla are accessory organs.Androecium and Gynoecium are reproductive organs.Bisexual:  When a flower has both androecium and gynoecium.Unisexual:  A flower having either only stamens or only carpels Hypogynous flower: Ovary occupies the highest position. The ovary in such a case is called superior. Eg. Mustard, brinjal and china rose.Perigynous flowers: If the gynoecium is situated at the centre and other parts are on the rim at the same height. Ovary is called half-inferior.Epigynous flowers: The margin of thalamus grows to completely cover the ovary. Ovary is said to be inferior.The mode of arrangement of sepals or petals in a floral bud with respect to the other members of the same whorl is called aestivation. Aestivation of flowers is of four types: Androecium is composed of stamens. Each stamen which represents the male reproductive organ consists of a stalk or a filament and an anther. Gynoecium is the female reproductive part of the flower and is made up of one or more carpels.  A carpel consists of three parts namely stigma, style and ovary.The arrangement of ovules within the ovary is called placentation.There are five types of placentation: Marginal Placentation: The ovules develop in rows near the margin on the placenta formed along the ventral suture. For Example: Leguminosae.Parietal Placentation: The placenta is formed by the swelling up of cohering margins, and on the latter develops the ovules in rows. For Example: Papaveraceae.Axial Placentation: Here, the placenta develop from the central axis which correspond to the confluent margins of carpels. For Example: Solanaceae, Malvaceae.Free Central: The placenta develops in the centre of the ovary as a prolongation of the floral axis and the ovules are attached on this axis. For Example: Primulaceae.Basal placentation: The placenta develops directly on the thalamus and bears a single ovule at the base of the unilocular ovary. For Example: Compositae.The fruit is a characteristic feature of the plants. It is a mature or ripened ovary, developed after fertilisation. If a fruit is formed without fertilisation of the ovary, it is called a parthenocarpic fruit.Fruit consists of seeds and pericarp. Thick and fleshy pericarp is three layered called epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp.Seeds are of two types that present in fruit: So, this is all about Plant Morphology. Get some practice of the same on our free Testbook App. Download Now!Animal Morphology FAQsBiology Plant Morphology FAQSWhy is animal morphology important?Animal morphology is an important tool that helps to determine evolutionary relationships between organisms and the study of their ancestorsWhat are the characteristics of morphology?The characteristics of morphology are shape, structure, colour, pattern, size, form and structure.What are morphological changes in animals?Morphological changes are changes to the outward appearance of an animal as well as the form and structure of internal parts.What are morphology and anatomy?Morphology is the branch of biology that deals with the form of living organisms and anatomy is the study of the internal structure, at the microscopic level.What is functional morphology?Study of relationships between the structure of an organism and the function of the various parts of an organism is called the functional morphology.

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Root, stem, and leaves are the morphology of plants. Morphology is the study of science that deals with the study of form, size, color, and position of respective parts of an organism. By learning the morphology characters of an organism we can identify living organisms, learn the variation between two organisms, if an organism is affected by some pathogen by looking at their morphology characters we can identify their diseases.

So today we are learning about the morphological part of plants which are root, stem, leaf, fruit, flower, and seed. But in this article we are just studying three plant parts they are root, stem, and leaf. We know the importance of these three parts as we learned about them in our high school but we are learning about them here more scientifically and deeply.

The root is the main part in plants for absorbing water and nutrition and transporting it to the stem. The root grows deep into the soil but it can’t be done in bedrock because rocks won’t allow them to go further, they stop growing deeply when they meet the bedrock layer.

The stem is the one that transports the nutrition, water, and some minerals to all parts of the plant. It bears leaves, fruits, and flowers. It spreads its branches and gives shelter to other living organisms too. Leaves play an important role in photosynthesis by which they prepare food. So let’s study more deeply about these three.

Root, stem, and leaves are the morphology of plants. Morphology is the study of science that deals with the study of form, size, color, and position of respective parts of an organism. By learning the morphology characters of an organism we can identify living organisms, learn the variation between two organisms, if an organism is affected by some pathogen by looking at their morphology characters we can identify their diseases. we have learned about modifications, the morphology of the root, stem, and leaf which are more important in the plant.

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Root, Stem, Leaf are plant parts. Other plant parts are fruit, flower, and seed. The underground part of the plant is the root which is growing towards soil with respect to gravitational force. The parts above ground are leaf, stem, flower, fruit, and seed which grow towards air opposite to gravitational force. In these, we are studying the underground part and the leaf and stem above-ground parts. Plants are the primary source of food in the world and the basic unit of the ecosystem. First, let’s study the root.

The vascular plant root is the organ that gives support to the whole plant and helps it to grow taller by transporting the nutrients, minerals, and water from the soil. They are basically below the soil but not always. Some plants bear aerials too in anaerobic conditions which makes them grow roots above ground. The main function of the root is to transport water, nutrients, and minerals to the plant from the soil and also to give support to the plant.

Root morphology is divided into four parts. They are the root cap, apical meristem, elongation zone, and hair. These four root caps are the base part or first part of the root system.

The true root consists of primary and secondary roots. Further, there are three types of root systems.

Modification of root

The stem is the main structural vascular axis for plants which transport nutrients and water to all parts of the plant. It bears leaves, flowers, and fruits. It stores nutrients and produces more living tissues. In some plants, the stem is modified to store food, support vegetative propagation and protection.

Stem morphology

The stem is normally divided into nodes and internodes. Node is the one that bears buds and leaves; sometimes branches also arise from them. Internode is the place between two nodes.

Based on the type of modifications stem modifications are of three types.

Underground stem modification

These modified stems are partially aerial and partially underground.

Aerial stem modifications

The leaf is the main part of the plant which has nutrients and other minerals which are used to prepare edible portions for other parts. Leaves a major role in photosynthesis and transpiration. Leaves are collectively called foliage. Leaves have different shapes and sizes. Broad leaves, narrow leaves, etc. leaf is a flat structure that is attached to a branch or stem.

Morphology of leaves:

Leaf modification: Where other structures of the plant are not performing or not developed then the plant leaves modify themselves to that function and it will also modify according to its habitat.

Importance of this chapter in NEET

Plant morphology is the main topic that we need to know when learning about plants. Although it is a basic topic, you get many bits regarding modifications and their examples. It is easy to learn, and you will score high. You can expect questions related to this topic every year in competitive papers. Just learn modification types and their definitions with examples. Don’t neglect the definition of parts and the functions of morphological parts.

Also read: Flower, Fruit and Seed

What is root?

In the vascular plant root is the organ that gives support to the whole plant and helps it to grow taller by transporting the nutrients, minerals, and water from the soil. They are basically below the soil but not always. Some plants bear aerials too in anaerobic conditions which makes them grow roots above ground. The main function of the root is to transport water, nutrients, and minerals to the plant from the soil and also to give support to the plant.

Q. What are the stem modifications?

1) Underground stem modification:

2) Sub-aerial modifications: These modified stems are partially aerial and partially underground.

3) Aerial stem modifications:

Q. Write about leaf parts?

«Roots Stems Leaves Flowers Fruits Seeds»— Presentation transcript

Roots Stems Leaves Flowers Fruits Seeds

Primitive flower — blending of flower parts; spirally arranged fossils, embryology, modern plants Degeneria Carpel — primitive pistil

Number of carpels 1. Lines on the outside of the pistil2. One stigma lobe per carpel 3. Number of locules (if not free central

Inflorescence Types arrangement of flowers on the flowering stemSolitary — one flower per peduncle

Inflorescence Types arrangement of flowers on the flowering stemMany Flowered — More than one flower per inflorescence

Inflorescence Types arrangement of flowers on the flowering stemMany Flowered — More than one flower per inflorescence All come of

Inflorescence Types arrangement of flowers on the flowering stemMany Flowered — More than one flower per inflorescence Dense, rounded with many sessile flowers

Inflorescence Types Determinate: Indeterminate:Oldest flowers toward the top Oldest flowers toward the bottom

Stem — Branch Bud — embryonic branch

Leaves — Margins

Hairs — Glands

Age of Branch Age of Tree

Fruit (Pericarp) ripened ovaryExocarp, Mesocarp, Endocarp

Fruit Types Fleshy: Hip — cluster on achenes in a hypanthiumPome — from a compound, inferior ovary with a thick & fleshy receptacle

Fruit Types Dry Indehiscent:Achene — 1-seeded, connected to the pericarp at a single point Samar (Shizocarp)- 1-seeded winged achene

Fruit Types Dry Indehiscent:Acorn — 1-seeded, with a hard coat & surrounded by a cap of hard bracts Nut — 1-seeded, hard coat

Fruit Types Dry Dehiscent:Capsule — multiple carpeled, opening in various ways Follicle — 1-carpelated fruit splitting down 1 side

Fruit Types Dry Dehiscent:Legume — 1-celled, 1-carpelated, splitting on 2 sides Sillicle (sillique)- short, 2-locular fruit with each half separating from one another with a thin septum

Fruit Types Simple — from one ovary Compound Aggregatefrom many pistils from many flowers

Life Cycle Durations Annual — one year of less Biennial — 2 yearsPerennial — more than 2 years

Plant Structure Coalescence Same kinds of structures coalesce Different kinds of structures coalesce

Plant Structure Coalescence Monodelphus — all stamens coalesce Diadelphus — 2 stamens coalesce Polydelphus — many stamen coalesce

A flowering plant is made up of two parts, namely;

Root System

The root system refers to the portion of the plant which develops inside the soil. The root has many tiny structures on it called the root hairs through which water, mineral salts and other nutrients are absorbed by the plant through a process known as osmosis.

The root system is divided into two main types namely;

A Labelled Diagram of a Flowering Plant

Functions of the Root

(i) Anchorage: for holding the plant firmly to the ground.

(ii) Nutrient absorption: Roots absorbs water and mineral elements from the soil which are then pass unto other plant parts. This is the most important function of the root to the plant.

(iii) Storage: In some plants the roots acts as storage organs e.g carrot, cassava, etc.

(iv) Reproduction: Some plants used their roots for vegetative propagation e.g. bread fruit, sweet potato, citrus etc.

(v) Nutrient fixation: Roots of leguminous crops harbors some nitrogen fixing bacteria which helps to convert atmospheric nitrogen into soil nitrate for plant use.

(vi) Erosion control: Root of grasses help to bind soil particles together thus preventing erosion.

Shoot System

The part of the plant that grows upright above the ground is the shoot. It is made up of the stem, branches, leaves, flowers, buds, fruits and seeds. This parts form both the vegetative and reproductive organs of the plants.

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The vegetative parts consists of the stem, branches, leaves, buds while the flowers are the reproductive organs.

The Stem

This is the part that supports the leaves, fruits, flowers, and seeds. There are different types of stems

Sub – Topic 2 Functions of the parts of a plant

The stem: The functions of the include:

The root: The functions of the roots include

Leaf Flower Stem Branches Fruits


Classification of Crops based on Crop Plant Forms

A crop is any plant that has a useful purpose or economic value.

Crop plants are grouped into two forms based on the structure of their seeds or the number of seed leaf it contains. Seed leaf is otherwise known as cotyledon.

Food for germinating seed is stored in the cotyledon.

These are plants with one seed leaf or cotyledons e.g. oil palm, coconut, banana, plantain, pineapple, date-palm, garlic, sugar-cane, cereals e.g. wheat, millet, rice, maize, sorghum, rye, barley, oats and all grasses e.g. guinea grass, carpet grass, etc.

Characteristics of Monocotyledonous Plants

These are plants with two seed leaves or cotyledons. They include most trees e.g. kola, cocoa, cashew, orange, mango, guava, pawpaw, silk cotton, Iroko, most vegetables e.g tomato, okro, melon, pepper, roots and tubers e.g cassava, sweet potato, yam etc and legumes such as soya-beans, cowpea, groundnuts, pigeon pea, etc.

Characteristics of Dicotyledons Plants

Students to get any of the part of the plant, identify and draw it, and write its functions

Junior secondary Agriculture (workbook 1)byAnthony.Youdeowei et-al page 5-7,16.

The topic is presented step by step

The class teacher revises the previous topics

He introduces the new topic

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise

The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written. He or she does the necessary corrections when the need arises.

Prepare for the next lesson by reading about

«Plants are living things. Plants have roots, stems or trunks, branches, leaves, flowers, and fruit. Leaves Flower Roots Branches Trunk Fruit. «— Presentation transcript

Plants are living things.

Plants have roots, stems or trunks, branches, leaves, flowers, and fruit. Leaves Flower Roots Branches Trunk Fruit

Parts of most all plants are Leaves Flowers Fruits Stems Seeds and Roots

The R RR ROOTS help support the plant by absorbing water and nutrients needed for growth.

LEAVES can be simple or compound Simple Leaf

FLOWER A FLOWER is a part of a plant. Flowers can be diferent colours, sizes and shapes. They small different, too.

The Parts of a Flower

FRUIT The FRUIT of a plant carries and protects the seed.

Many things we call vegetables are really fruits such as tomatoes, cucumbers, and beans.

Plants need water, sunlight and air to live.

Plants growing in small spaces will have their roots crowded, and that results in smaller amounts of growth. Room to grow All plants need these things :

Light All plants need

Without water or with too much water, a plant dies. Water All plants need

Plants use carbon dioxide in the air and return oxygen. Air All plants need

Nutrients All plants need

Carries water and food through the plant. Stem Leaves Roots Flower Fruit Seed The stem carries water and food through the plant. A stem can be short or long.

Stem Leaves Roots Flower Fruit Seed The fruit of a plant carries and protects the seed. Carries and protects the seed.

Allows the plant to reproduce. The seed of a plant allows the plant to reproduce. Stem Leaves Roots Flower Fruit Seed

Helps the plant to produce seeds. Stem Leaves Roots Flower Fruit Seed Flower of the Orange Tree

Take up nutrients and water. Stem Leaves Roots Flower Fruit Seed

Trees, Shrubs and herbs are all plants.

Some tree give us fruit. They are fruit trees. These can be nuts like chestnuts or acorns or fresh fruits like apples or peaches Trees



They have a lot of stems, like heather. AZALEA ROSE Heather Blackberries Shrubs Rock Rose

HERBS: They have soft stems, like wheat


PLANTS PARTS RootsFruitStemsLeavesFlowers Petals Sepal Stamen Pistil CLASSES TreesShrubsHerbs NEED Light WaterAirNutrients

BIBLIOGRAPHY: TEXT: Student Text Books: IMAGES: CNICE Student Drawings from Third Level



Plant Structure and Function

Is It a Stem, Leaf, Root, Flower, Fruit or Seed? Fruit/Vegetable Part of Plant Broccoli Cabbage Carrot Celery Stalk Corn Kernel Garlic Onion Potato Tomato Zucchini

Plant Body ShootShoot system = leaves + stem RootRoot system MeristemMeristem = cells that divide for life of plant, can give rise to all plant structures

Three Types of Plant Tissues Vascular TissueVascular Tissue –Transport –Support Ground TissueGround Tissue –Synthesis of Sugars –Storage –Support Dermal TissueDermal Tissue –Protection

Division of Meristem Cells Causes Plant Growth Apical MeristemApical Meristem –tips of root and shoot –increase in height Lateral MeristemLateral Meristem –cylinders within plant body –increase in width

Plant Body Functions Exposes surface to sunlight Major site of photosynthesis Conserves water Provides for gas exchangeBlade Petiole Leaf = blade + petiole Stoma = opening in the leaf for gas exchange, water evaporation

Structures of the Leaf Photosynthesis Conserves water Transports water and sugar to stem and roots

Plant Body Stem: series of nodes and internodes Functions Holds leaves up to light Transports substances through vascular tissue Xylem conducts water and minerals Phloem transports sugar

Lateral Meristem Causes the Stem to Grow in Width

Wood and Bark are Products of Lateral Meristem

Plant Body Root Functions Anchors plant in soil Takes up water and minerals from soil

Applying Your Knowledge A.Where is the primary site of photosynthesis in a plant? B.Which one is responsible for an increase in plant height? C.Which one transports materials throughout the plant? 1.Apical Meristem 2.Vascular Tissue 3.Stem 4.Leaf 5.Lateral Meristem

Flowering Plant Reproduction Flowers are modified leaves, specialized for reproduction.Flowers are modified leaves, specialized for reproduction. Flower parts undergo meiosis to produce haploid productsFlower parts undergo meiosis to produce haploid products –pollen grain –ovule (contains egg cell) Pollen grains Ovule Flower Meiosis Mitosis

A Complete Flower Has Both Male and Female Parts Sepal Petal Ovary Style Stigma PistilPistil Anther Filament StamenStamen Encloses and Protects Bud Attracts pollinator Male part Female part Produces egg Produces pollen

Mature Pollen Grain Pollination and Fertilization in a Flower Tube Cell Nucleus Sperm Cells 1.pollen grains land on stigma Stigma Style Ovary 2.pollen tubes grow down stigma to ovary Sperm Egg 3A: Fusion of sperm + egg 3B: Fusion of 2 nd sperm + two polar nuclei 3.double fertilization Polar nuclei Ovule

Development of Fruit and Seeds From Flower Parts TriploidEndospermCell Triploid Endosperm Cell Ovary Ovary Integument Integument Diploid Zygote Diploid Zygote EndospermEndosperm Fresh Fruit Seed Coat Embryo (new plant) Seed = embryo + stored food + seed coat Fruit = ovary wall, mechanism for seed dispersal Provides nutrition

Applying Your Knowledge A.Which one develops from the ovary wall? B.Which one produces pollen? C.Which one develops from a fertilized ovule? D.What is the name of the female part of the flower? 1.Seed 2.Fruit 3.Pistil 4.Anther 5.Pollen

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