Apple root certificates

В iOS 10.3 и более поздних версий, а также в iPadOS при ручной установке профиля, содержащего полезную нагрузку сертификата, этот сертификат не становится доверенным для SSL автоматически.

Эта статья предназначена для системных администраторов учебных учреждений, предприятий и других организаций.

При установке профиля, полученного по электронной почте или загруженного с веб-сайта, доверие для SSL необходимо включать вручную.

Apple рекомендует развертывать сертификаты с помощью средств Apple Configurator или Mobile Device Management (MDM). Доверие полезных нагрузок сертификатов автоматически включается для SSL при их установке с помощью средств Configurator, MDM или в качестве части профиля регистрации MDM.

Для того чтобы установить персональный сертификат WM Keeper WebPro (Light) с закрытым ключом в хранилище устройства под управлением iOS необходимо выполнить следующие действия:

1 Отправьте файл сертификата в формате *.pfx или *.p12 на свой e-mail.

3 Откроется диалог «Установка профиля». Нажмите кнопку «Установить».

4 Если устройство защищено паролем, то необходимо ввести его. Внимание, этот пароль — от устройства, а не от сертификата.

5 Нажмите кнопку «Установить».

6 Затем введите пароль от сертификата, который был установлен при экспорте сертификата. Внимание, этот пароль — от сертификата, не от устройства.

7 В случае ввода верного пароля сертификат установится на ваше устройство.

В хранилищах доверия содержатся доверенные корневые сертификаты, предустановленные в iOS, macOS, watchOS и tvOS.

В каждом хранилище доверия содержится три категории сертификатов.

Выполните следующие действия, чтобы найти версию хранилища доверия, установленного на вашем устройстве iOS.

Выполните эти действия, чтобы найти версию хранилища доверия, установленного на компьютере Mac.

В этой статье перечислены сертификаты для хранилища доверия версии 2018071800, актуальной для iOS 12, macOS 10.14, watchOS 5 и tvOS 12.

В этой статье содержатся сведения о хранилищах доверия для более ранних версий iOS, macOS, watchOS и tvOS.

Certificate of principle

Asymmetric encryption (public/private key encryption) is at the heart of various certificates in iOS development. The principle of asymmetric encryption is not introduced in this paper.

To get behind the scenes of certificates, we need to understand two key concepts:

A digital signature

Digital Signature is the realization of a function equivalent to stamping in the real world in the field of Digital information. Digital signatures can detect tampering and spoofing.

In digital signature technology, there are two kinds of behavior:

Signature is generated

Apple root certificates

Signature verification is performed by the receiver in the communication, and the process is shown below. Generally, the sender sends the message, the signature, and the hash algorithm together to the receiver. The receiver first decrypts the signature using the sender’s public key to get a digest. The message is then hashed using the same hash algorithm to compute another digest. Finally, the two digests are judged to be equal. If they are equal, the received message has not been tampered with by a third party.

Apple root certificates

So how does the receiver get the sender’s public key? How does the receiver determine that the public key belongs to the sender? That’s what digital certificates do.

The digital certificate

Digital Certificate is a realization of the functions equivalent to id card in the real world in the field of Digital information. A digital Certificate contains the identity information of an individual or organization and its Public Key, so it is also called a public-key Certificate (PKC).

Apple root certificates

Apple root certificates

When receiving the sender’s certificate, the receiver uses the CA public key to authenticate the certificate.

However, it is important to note that in many cases the CA public key is issued by another, more authoritative authority.

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Certificates similar to the local public security bureau are issued by the municipal public security Bureau, which in turn are issued by the provincial public security Bureau. A Certificate has a Chain of Trust. Root Certificate is the source of Trust, that is, the origin of the Trust Chain.

The issuer of the Root Certificate is called the Root Certificate Authority (Root CA). The Root Certificate is a self-signed Certificate issued by the Root CA. Installing a Certificate means that you trust the CA authority.

Certificates can be divided into three types based on their position in the trust chain:

This raises a fundamental question: How do you ensure that the root certificate is trusted?

In fact, root certificates are installed with software. For example, a list of trusted root certificates is built-in during operating system installation.

The validation process of the test package.

The App is verified when it is installed and running on the device.

1, first of all, the equipment system will be on the App bundle ID, Entitlements, certificate and Provisioning Profile App ID, Entitlements, certificates matching verification, Otherwise, the App cannot be launched.

2. Secondly, the device uses the built-in CA public key to sign the matched certificate in the Provisioning Profile to verify the validity of the matched certificate.

3. The device system then takes the public key out of the Provisioning Profile’s matching CA-validated certificate (that is, the packaged application developer’s certificate) and signs the App. Otherwise, the App cannot start.

4. Finally, the Device system matches the Device ID of the Device with the Device ID in the Provisioning Profile. Otherwise, the App cannot be started.

If you have a jailbroken device and look at any of the apps you download from the App Store, you will find no embedded. Mobileprovision file because the App Store has already validated the App (similar to the validation process for the test pack above). When the App passes the verification, Apple Store will re-sign the App, as shown in the picture below. The re-signed content will no longer contain the Provisioning Profile, nor will it be included in the final IPA file.

When the device downloads an App from the App Store, it directly uses the CA public key on the device to verify the IPA signature. Compared with the signature verification of the test package, the signature verification of the formal package is much simpler, because part of the verification work has been completed by the App Store.

Testlight release

Package it with a production certificate and submit it to APP Connect for self-distribution

Certificate invalid solution

This is a common problem. This error indicates that the Apple Worldwide Developer Relationship certificate AppleWWDRCA is not installed on the development device, or the installed WWDRCA is invalid. Solutions:

The current Apple Worldwide Developer Relationship Certification intermediate certificate, WWDRCA (the one we downloaded above), expires on February 7, 2023. Apple has released a new WWDRCA with an updated certificate expiration date of February 20, 2030. The new certificate will be used to sign new software signing certificates issued for Apple developer programs after January 28, 2021.

Apple root certificates

Provisioning Profile

A Provisioning Profile (PP) contains all of the above:

Developers can download the Provisioning Profile, which is a.mobileprovision file. Developers can also Delete a registered Provisioning Profile. Constitute a

Certificate of iOS

First, let’s take a look at an example of a trust chain for iOS development certificates in MacOS (viewed through the keychain) :

Apple root certificates

Root Certificate Apple Root Certificate Authority is built-in during MacOS installation and is issued by the Apple Root CA.

The Apple World Developer Relations Certificate Authority (the actual file is Applewwdrca.cer) is built-in with Xcode installation and is issued by the Apple Root CA. Although applewwdrca. cer is an intermediate certificate, it is the root certificate for the iOS development category;

The certificates we use for development are leaf certificates issued by the Apple Worldwide Developer Relations Certification Authority.

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Push the certificate to the pem command

Step 1 Convert aps_development.cer into a PEM file. Cer -inform der -out aps_development.pem 2. Convert the p12 private key file to a PEM file. $openssl pkcs12 -nocerts -out key.pem -in key.p12 3. $ cat aps_development.pem key.pem ck.pemCopy the code

The development and production environments are transformed in the same way

Sharing development accounts and certificates across multiple machines

After the CER is installed locally and matches the local private key. We usually make a backup of the certificate, which is a P12 file. P12 backup file = CER file + private key; So with this P12 there is no need to worry about certificate loss. Operation diagram: After the CER is installed locally and matches the local private key. We usually make a backup of the certificate, which is a P12 file. P12 backup file = CER file + private key; So with this P12 there is no need to worry about certificate loss. Operation diagram:

Apple root certificates

Note: Two files are required for a successful installation on someone else’s computer:

1. The. P12 file is exported.

2. The p12 file corresponding to «certificate» in apple developer is an encrypted certificate, so you can use these two files for other MAC devices. After getting these two files, double-click development Description file and P12 file one by one. The function of «description file» is to be placed in Xcode to let Xcode know the legitimacy of our development. After adding, it can be used.

Apple iPads and iPhones can connect securely to enterprise networks, but IT admins need to install root certificates or CA certificates to the devices first.

devices to accept valid CA certificates. Luckily, there are many different methods to install root certificate authority to iOS devices.

What is a root CA certificate?

X.509 certificates are electronic credentials used by devices (e.g., servers, clients) to authenticate themselves. Each certificate binds the subject identity (for instance, the server’s hostname or IP address) to a public or private key pair. The subject’s identity and public key are included in the certificate, along with the issuing root certificate authority name and signature.

CAs are responsible for confirming subject identity before issuing requested CA certificates. They are also responsible for renewing and — when appropriate — revoking select certificates. In effect, CAs operate like passport offices, handing out official passports to authorized individuals who have proved their identity.

The importance of trusted root certificates

CA certificates from trusted root CAs are essential for public-facing servers such as e-commerce sites, but many companies prefer to use their own CA to issue certificates to corporate email, web, VPN and other servers not intended for public use. Applications running on iPads and iPhones can authenticate corporate servers using privately issued certificates that are given instructions to trust them.

A far better option is for IT to explicitly add a trusted CA certificate to employee devices, configuring applications to recognize and trust servers that prove their identity using your company’s CA certificates. In this way, IT can permit secure connections to trustworthy servers without throwing the door wide open.

Install root certificate on iPhone or iPad

Configuration profiles: A more automated and stronger method of adding CA certificates is to use iOS configuration profiles. Configuration profiles are files that deliver settings to iOS devices. Each profile consists of XML-formatted payloads, which include the certificates and the settings for applications that use those certificates. No matter how profiles are deployed, their XML payload content has the same format.

There are three types of profile payloads carry certificate settings: Exchange payloads, which are used to configure Transport Layer Security (TLS) protected email access; Internet Protocol Security VPN payloads, which are for configuring certificate-authenticated VPN access; and Wi-Fi payloads, which are used to configure Extensible Authentication Protocol authenticated WLAN access.

You can associate any certificates obtained via SCEP with Exchange, VPN or Wi-Fi configuration payloads described above, and it’s done by including SCEP payloads in configuration profiles to retrieve client certificates from SCEP servers. A SCEP payload includes your company’s SCEP server URL, along with any optional values such as the name of the CA and the client’s X.500 subject name.

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Dig Deeper on Mobile operating systems and devices

1. First, Xcode checks that the Signing (certificate) configuration matches the Provisioning Profile. Otherwise, an error will be reported.

Apple root certificates

Second, Xcode checks to see if the Signing Capabilities certificate has the corresponding Public/Private Key Pair in the native Keychain Access. Otherwise, the compiler will report an error.

3, the Xcode certificate then executes the private Key Pair application content (Executable Code, Resources such as images and NIb files are not signed) for signing (CodeSign). Note: Entitlements files can also be embedded within the content to be signed.

Eventually, signatures, Provisioning profiles, and applications are packaged into.ipA

Apple root certificates

The app file

When running test packages and formal packages on a real machine, the system validates them differently. In short, the test pack performs complete signature verification on the device; The verification process of the official package is handed over to the App Store, and the App Store will re-sign after the verification. The verification process is much simpler after the device downloads the official package.

Application for development Certificate

Apple root certificates

Note: Download the certificate from Apple Member Center website to Mac and double click to install.

When manually clicking *. Cer to install the certificate into macOS, Keychain Access traces its issuing CA to Apple Worldwide Developer Relations Certification Authority (Apple Worldwide Developer Relations Certification Authority), The public key of AppleWWDRCA certificate is used to decrypt and verify the digital signature of the development certificate. If the verification succeeds, This certificate is valid.

IOS Certificate types

App ID is the Product ID, which identifies one or a group of apps.

The App ID string is usually prefixed with the Company Identifier (Company ID) in reverse-domain-name format and contains no more than 255 ASCII characters.

The full name of the App ID is appended with an Application Identifier Prefix (typically TeamID). App ids can be divided into two types:

Developers can Register or Delete registered App IDs on the Developer Member Center website.

In Xcode, the configuration item Xcode Target — Info — Bunlde Identifier must be consistent with the App ID (Explicit) or matched (Wildcard).

Note: Registering an App ID allows the developer to tick the required Capabilities TAB. This matches Entitlements as described above.

Device id

A Device is an iOS Device used for development and debugging. Each Apple Device is uniquely identified by a Unique Device Identifier (UUID).

The Device under the personal account of Apple Member Center website contains all registered devices that can be used for development and testing. The average personal development account can register 100 devices at most every year.

Developers can register or Enable/Disable registered devices on the site.

Authorization Document (Entitlements)

Sandbox technology is a very important technology in iOS security system. Its purpose is to restrict the behavior of App, such as: the path that can be read and written, the hardware that can be accessed, the service that can be used, and so on. Therefore, if a bug occurs in the code, it will not affect the system outside the sandbox.

Sandbox uses Entitlements files/to declare permissions for App. If a sandbox restriction function is used in the App, but the corresponding permission is not declared, the relevant code will Crash directly.

Apple root certificates

Apple root certificates

Get-task-allow indicates whether debugging is allowed. It is a required permission during the development phase and removed when Archive is packaged for shelving.

Note: code signature, will merge Entitlements file (if any) with the default content of the above, get the final authorization file, and embedded in binary code, as part of the content to be signed, by the code signature to ensure its tamper-proof.

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