Derived words are those composed of one root- morpheme and one or more derivational morpheme

Derived words are those composed of one root- morpheme and one or more derivational morpheme Техника

Words consist of morphemes. The term “morpheme” is derived from Greek morphe — ‘form’ + -erne. The Greek suffix -erne has been adopted by linguists to denote the smallest unit (cf. phoneme, sememe). The morphemeis the smallest meaningful unit of form. Morphemes cannot be segmented into smaller units without losing their constitutive essence, i.e. two-facetedness — association of a certain meaning with a certain sound-pattern. Morphemes occur in speech only as constituent parts of words but not independently.

Morphemes may be classified from the semantic point of view and from the structural point of view.

Semantically morphemes fall into two types: 1) root-morphemes and 2) non-root morphemes.

Root-morphemes(or radicals)are the lexical nucleus of words. For example, in the words remake, glassful, disorder the root-morphemes -make, glass- and -order are understood as the lexical centres of the words. The root-morpheme is isolated as the morpheme common to a set of words making up a word-cluster, e.g. the morpheme teach- in to teach, teacher, teaching.

Non-root morphemesinclude inflectional morphemes (or inflections) and affixational morphemes (or affixes). Inflections carry only grammatical meaning and are thus relevant only for the formation of word-forms, whereas affixes are relevant for building various types of stems. Lexicology is concerned only with affixational morphemes.

Structurally morphemes fall into three types: 1) free morphemes; 2) bound morphemes; 3) semi-bound (semi-free) morphemes.

A free morphemeis defined as one that coincides with the stem or a word-form. For example, the root-morpheme friend- of the noun friendship is naturally qualified as a free morpheme because it coincides with one of the forms of the word friend.

A bound morphemeoccurs only as a constituent part of a word. Affixes are bound morphemes for they always make part of a word.

Semi-bound (semi-free) morphemesare morphemes that can function in a morphemic sequence both as an affix and as a free morpheme. For example, the morphemes well and half on the one hand occur as free morphemes that coincide with the stem and the word-form in the utterances to sleep well, half an hour, on the other hand well and half occur as bound morphemes in the words well-known, half-done.

Structurally derivational bases fall into three groups: 1. Bases that coincide with morphological stems, e.g. dutiful, dutifully; to day-dream, daydreamer,

Stems that serve as this class of bases may be of different derivational types thus forming derivational bases of different degrees of complexity:

a) root stems, which consist of only one, semantically non-motivated constituent, e.g. pocket, motion, retain;

b)derived stems, which are semantically or structurally motivated formed by means of different word-building processes such as affixation, conversion, abbreviation, types of shortenings.

c) compound stems are always binary formed by combining two free e.g. match-box (two simple stems), letter-writer (one simple and one derived stem); aircraft-carrier (a compound and derived stem).

2. Bases that coincide with word-forms, e.g. unsmiling, paper-bound.This class of bases is represented by verbal word-forms — the present and the past participles. The collocability of this class of derivational bases is confined to: 1) a few derivational affixes such as the prefix un- and the suffix -ly, e.g. unnamed, unknown; smilingly, knowingly; 2) other bases which coincide only with nominal and adjectival stems, e.g. mocking-bird, dancing-girl, ice-bound, easy­going.

3. Bases that coincide with word-groups, e.g.flat-waisted, second-rateness.

A derivational pattern(DP) is a regular meaningful arrangement, a structure that imposes rigid rules on the order and the nature of the derivational bases and affixes that may be brought together. DPs are studied with the help of distributional analysis at different levels. Simplificationis defined as a morphological process by which a word of a complex morphological structure loses the meaning of its separate morphological parts and becomes a mere symbol of the notion given.

Derived words are those composed of one root- morpheme and one or more derivational morpheme Aims and Principles of Morphemic and Word-formation Analysis

A synchronic description of the English vocabu­lary deals with its present-day system and its patterns of word-formation. If the analysis is limited to stating the number and type of morphemes that make up the word, it is called morphemic analysis.

A structural word-formation analysisstudies the structural correlation with other words, the structural patterns or rules on which words are built. This is car­ried out with the help of the principle of binary opposi­tions, i.e. by studying the partly similar elements and the differences which are functionally relevant; in our case this difference is sufficient to create a new word.

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Lecture 3. Structure of English word

Morphemes. Classification of morphemes

Procedure of morphemic analysis: methods and principles. The immediate constituents (IC) analysis

1. Morphemes. Classification of morphemes. In English, as in many other languages, the word is the smallest autonomous unit (i.e. the smallest unit able to form a sentence by itself). Most words are composite in their structure, i.e. they consist of meaningful parts, called morphemes. The term morpheme comes from the Greek word morphē meaning any kind of shape or form, the suffix “-eme” denotes the smallest significant or distinctive unit or form (e.g. phoneme).

A morpheme is often defined as the minimum (= smallest) meaningful part of the word, or the smallest meaningful unit of the language; therefore it also combines a definite sound pattern with a definite meaning. However, unlike a word, a morpheme cannot stand in isolation, i.e. it is not autonomous (= independent), although it may coincide with a word. For example, one of the morphemes making up the adjective » heartily» coincides with the noun » heart». A morpheme can no further be divided into meaningful parts; its component parts are phonemes, which have no meaning of their own.


Morphemes may be classified from the semantic point of view and from the structural point of view.

Semantically morphemes fall into two types: 1) root-morphemes and 2) non-root-morphemes.

Root-morphemes are the lexical nucleus of words. For example, in the words remake, glassful, disorder the root-morphemes are –make, glass – and –order are understood as the lexical centers of the words. The root-morpheme is isolated as the morpheme common to a set of words making up a word-cluster, e.g. the morpheme teach — in to teach, teacher, teaching. The root remains unchanged after all the affixes have been removed and can’t be broken into smaller meaningful parts. Root-morphemes are the main morphemes in any given language. A words is impossible without a root morpheme and some English words contain two root morphemes, even rarely three.

Non-root morphemes include inflectional morphemes (or inflections) and affixational morphemes or affixes (or affixes). Inflections carry only grammatical meaning and are thus relevant only for the formation of word-forms, whereas affixes are relevant for building various types of stems. Lexicology is concerned only with affixational morphemes.


Both root and affix morphemes may have a number of positional variants, called allomorphs (from the Ancient Greek » allos» – » other» and » morph» – » form»). The most obvious example is the negative prefix in-, which has three allomorphs – ir-, im- and il-. In- is the main variant, found in words like independent, ir- is only found before » r», as in irregular, im- precedes » p» or » m», as in impossible or immobile, while il- is only found before » l», as in illegal.

Root morphemes may have allomorphs as well, which can be seen from please, pleasure and pleasant, where the root, although graphically identical, is pronounced differently, depending on its phonemic environment. Allomorphs are defined as semantically identical but phonetically different (= dissimilar) variants of the same morpheme used in mutually exclusive environments, which means they are not interchangeable although their meanings are the same. Allomorphs result from the process of phonemic alternation, and linguists say they are characterized by complementary distribution, i.e. they may not replace one another in an identical environment. Actually there exist three types of distribution – contrastive and free variation may added to the mentioned above.

The function of an affix is to form a new word from an existing one, often with a different part-of-speech meaning, as teacher is formed from teach (v) and student from study (v). This process is known as derivation. Sometimes a derived word acquires not one but several affixes; of these, one may be so firmly connected with the root that its separation changes the part-of-speech meaning. The part of a word containing the root and the affix with the part-of-speech meaning is called the stem. If a stem coincides with the root, it is called a simple stem. It is also a free stem if it can stand in isolation, otherwise it is a bound stem. Bound stems are typical of borrowed foreign words. A bound morpheme occurs only as a constituent part of a word and never occurs alone in speech. Affixes are bound morphemes for they always make part of a word. For example, the suffixes – ness, -ship in the words darkness, friendship; prefixes im-, dis-, de- in the words impolite, to disregard, to demobilize.

Derived words, or derivatives, consist of at least two morphemes, of which at least one is a root They may be further classified into affixational derivatives, made up of a root and one or more affixes; compound words, made up of two (very seldom more) simple or derived stems (e.g. sweetheart, looking-glass); and derivational compounds, derived from a phrase by a combined process of composition and affixation (as a kind heart became kind-hearted. A special case is words formed by the process of conversion, which will be discussed separately.

Affixes may be classified into productive and non-productive. Suffixes are especially productive in forming new words, often changing the part-of-speech meaning, as quickly (adv.) is formed from quick (adj.). Prefixes do not usually change the part-of-speech meaning, as in lucky – unlucky, like – dislike, but there are a few exceptions: witch (n) – bewitch (v), war (n) – anti-war (adj.). Perhaps the most productive in English is the noun-forming -er suffix, as it is observed in many words like teacher, painter, miner, etc., and is regularly used to form new words. Other productive noun-forming suffixes are -ness and -ing (thinness, loveliness; singing, reading, teaching, etc.), while -dom, -hood and -ship are less productive (wisdom, kingdom; knighthood; friendship, professorship, scholarship, etc.). Some suffixes are useful in forming rare but expressive neologisms and nonce-words like brinkmanship (= the political skill of holding the world at the brink of a war), egghood (= the state of being an eggpresumably in the life of a hen) or lobsterdom; used in Charles Kingsley’s » Water Babies» to describe the social life of lobsters (if there is one). The most productive verb-forming suffix now is -ise/-ize, and the most productive adverb-forming suffix is -ly.

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2. Procedure of morphemic analysis: methods and principles. The immediate constituents (IC) analysis. Studying the principles of word-formation in English, calls for isolating various morphemes and determining word-formation patterns. This is achieved by different analytical procedures. The simplest of these is the morphemic analyses, which splits a word into its component morphemes and states their types and number. The word “girlishness” could be thus analyzed into three morphemes: of which the first is the root “girl-“ and the other two are suffixes “-lish-“ and “-ness”. The morphemic analysis helps to classify words into root-words, consisting of but one morpheme (root or stem), such as “girl”; derived words combining a root with one or more affixes, as “girlish” and “girlishness”; compound words, made up of two or more stems as “girl-friend”; and compound-derivatives, originating from a phrase as “old-maidish”, derived not from “old” and “maidish” –which does not exist in English – but from “old maid” and “-ish”. Therefore the affix is common in both stems in a compound derivative word. The morphemes into which a word is split by the morphemic analysis are defined in it as ultimate constituents (UC).

All English words fall under two classes: segmentable and non-segmentable words. The procedure generally employed for the purposes of segmenting words into the constituent morphemes is known as the method of Immediate and Ultimate constituents. Immediate constituents are any of the two meaningful parts forming a larger linguistic unit. The analysis into immediate constituents (ICs) was first suggested by L. Bloomfield and later developed by many linguists. IC analysis is a purely synchronic procedure showing the morphological motivation or the derivation pattern of the word according to which it is formed. In other words, the IC analysis shows in which sequence new morphemes were added on in the process of word-formation.

The idea behind the IC analysis is that a larger linguistic unity is always formed of two meaningful parts. Each of the parts may, or may not, be further analyzable. The result of the IC analysis could be represented by a tree diagram, the resulting morphemes forming its terminal branches.

The IC analysis is based on the dichotomic (binary division) principle, that means that a word to be analyzed is cut, at each successive step, into but two parts. Just where the cut is made depends on how strong the connections between the morphemes are. If possible each part is then cut into two again, and the process is repeated until the results are the individual morphemes, or the ultimate constituents (UC).

Taking the word ungentlemanly as a sample, we first observe that there are many similar words in English (unwomanly, untimely, unusually), and many more contain un- as their first element (uncertain, uneasy, unnatural). Therefore, the first step is to separate the prefix un- from the rest of the word resulting in gentlemanly. There are two possibilities for the next move: gentleman + -ly or gentle + -manly. Both produce two meaningful parts: however, gentle + manly does not seem to reflect the derivational history of the word and the mutual attraction of gentle and man seems to be much stronger than in gentleman and -ly. Gentle is next separated from man and the final step is gent + le, as English has both brittle, little, subtle and gently, genteel, gentry – although this is not a productive derivational pattern.

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Types of morphemes

MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF ENGLISH WORDS. AFFIXATION

MORPHEME AND ITS TYPES.

MORPHEMIC AND WORD -FORMATION ANALYSIS.

The Branch of Lexicology which

studies the Derivative Structure and the Patterns on which the Language builds new words

Is the System of derivative types of words and the process of creating new words after certain structural and semantic formulas and patterns

The process of forming words by combining root and affixal morphemes according to certain patterns specific for the language

The System of derivative types of words and the process of creating new words from material available from the language

Обеспечивающая построение и понимание его словоформ

Изучающий закономерности функционирования и развития

Морфемный строй языка, раздел языкознания, изучающий типы и структуру морфем

Is the study of Word – Formation and internal organization of words

Deals with the internal structure of word forms

An association of a given meaning

With a given sound pattern.

But unlike words not autonomous, independent.

The smallest meaningful unit of

Is the smallest indivisible two-facet language unit

Is a set of morphs, which have the same meaning and are characterized by complementary distribution

The smallest set of phonemes

) regularly reproduced in utterances

)is a physical form

Allomorphs (positional variants of the same morpheme) – realize the same morpheme: -ion/-sion/ -tion/-ation (complementary distribution): liberation, corruption.

Im-, ir-, In, Il-:(impossible,irregular, indirect,illegal) are allomorphs of the morpheme –in.

Ex: the plural morpheme

BranchÆ вЂ“ branches

Datum – data

Analysis – analyses

Piano — pianos

Different morphemes are characterized by contrastive distribution: -able (measurable “capable of being –ed”):-ed (measured “ marked by due proportion”)

The word is not the smallest unit of the language. It consists of morphemes. The morpheme may be defined as the smallest meaningful unit which has a sound form and meaning and which occurs in speech only as a part of a word.

The main function of suffixes in Modern English is

To form one part of speech from another,

To change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech.

(e.g. В«educateВ» v., В«educateeВ» n.,

В«musicВ» n., В«musicdomВ» n.).

There are different classifications of suffixes:

a) noun-forming suffixes:

er (criticizer), — dom (officialdom),

ism (ageism),

b) adjective-forming suffixes:

able (breathable), — less (symptomless), — ous (prestigious),

c) verb-forming suffixes:

ize (computerize), — ify (micrify),

d ) adverb-forming suffixes:

-ly (singly), — ward (tableward),

e) numeral-forming suffixes:

teen (sixteen), -ty (seventy).

Suffixes changing the lexical meaning of the stem can be subdivided into groups, e.g. noun-forming suffixes can denote:

a ) the agent of the action:

e.g. -er (experimenter), -ist (taxist), -ent (student),

-ian (Russian), -ese (Japanese), -ish (English),

-dom (moviedom), -ry (peasantry,

-ship (readership), -ati (literati),

-ie (horsie), -let (booklet),

-ling (gooseling), -ette (kitchenette),

3. Lexico-grammatical character of the stem.

Suffixes which can be added to certain groups of stems are subdivided into:

a) suffixes added to verbal stems:

-er (commuter), -ing (suffering), — able (flyable), -ment (involvement), -ation (computerization),

b) suffixes added to noun stems:

-less (smogless), ful (roomful), -ism (adventurism), -ster (pollster), -nik (filmnik), -ish (childish),

c) suffixes added to adjective stems:

-en (weaken), -ly (pinkly), -ish (longish), -ness (clannishness).

Origin of suffixes.

a ) native (Germanic):

-er,-ful, -less, -ly.

-tion, -ment, -able, -eer.

-ist, -ism, -ize.

-er, -ize, —ly, -ness.

-eer, -ette, -ward.

-ard (drunkard), -th (length).

В· doer of the action expressed by the stem (speaker),

В· occupation (teacher),

В· a device,

A tool (transmitter).

compound suffixes: added to the stem at the same time:

-ibly, (terribly, reasonably),

-ation (adaptation from adapt).

(a suffix or a root morpheme in the structure of a word) or semi-suffixes, and words with such suffixes can be classified either as derived words or as compound words:

-aholic (workaholic) etc.

Word formation is the creation of new words from elements already existing in the language. Every language has its own structural patterns of word formation.

Morphemes are subdivided into root — morphemes and affixational morphemes.

The root morpheme is the lexical center of the word. It is the semantic nucleus of a word with which no grammatical properties of the word are connected.

Affixational morphemes include inflections and derivational affixes.

Inflection is an affixal morpheme which carries only grammatical meaning thus relevant only for the formation of word-forms (books, opened, strong-er).

Derivational morpheme is an affixal morpheme which modifies the lexical meaning of the root and forms a new word. In many cases it adds the part-of-speech meaning to the root (manage-ment, en-courage, fruit-ful)

Morphemes which may occur in isolation and function as independent words are called free morphemes (pay, sum, form).

Morphemes which are not found in isolation are called bound morphemes (-er, un-, -less)

The segmentation of words is generally carried out according to the method of Immediate and Ultimate Constituents. This method is based upon the binary principle, i.e. each stage of procedure involves two components the word immediately breaks into. At each stage these two components are referred to as the Immediate Constituents (IC). Each IC at the next stage of analysis is in turn broken into smaller meaningful elements. The analysis is completed when we arrive at constituents incapable of further division, i.e. morphemes. These are referred to as Ultimate Constituents (UC). The analysis of word-structure on the morphemic level must naturally proceed to the stage of UC-s.

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Allomorphes are the phonemic variants of the given morpheme e.g. il-, im-, ir-, are the allomorphes of the prefix in- (illiterate, important, irregular, inconstant).

Monomorphic are root-words consisting of only one root-morpheme i.e. simple words (dry, grow, boss, sell).

Polymorphic are words consisting of at least one root-morpheme and a number of derivational affixes, i.e. derivatives, compounds (customer, payee, body-building, shipping).

Derived words are those composed of one root-morpheme and one more derivational morphemes (consignment, outgoing, publicity).

Compound words contain at least two root-morphemes (warehouse, camera-man),

Productivity is the ability to form new words after existing patterns which are readily understood by the speakers of a language. Synchronically the most important and the most productive ways of word-formation are affixation, conversion, word-composition and abbreviation (contraction). In the course of time the productivity of this or that way of word-formation may change. Sound interchange or gradation (bloodto bleed, to abide -abode, to strikestroke) was a productive way of word building in old English and is important for a diachronic study of the English language. It has lost its productivity in Modern English and no new word can be coined by means of sound gradation. Affixation on the contrary was productive in Old English and is still one of the most productive ways of word building in Modern English.

Affixation is the formation of new words with the help of derivational affixes. Suffixation is more productive than prefixation. In Modern English suffixation is characteristic of noun and adjective formation, while prefixation is typical of verb formation (incoming, trainee, principal, promotion).

Affixes are usually divided into living and dead affixes. Living affixes are easily separated from the stem (care-ful). Dead affixes have become fully merged with the stem and can be singled out by a diachronic analysis of the development of the word (admit — L.- ad + mittere). Living affixes are in their turn divided into productive and non-productive affixes. In many cases the choice of the affixes is a means of differentiating meaning:

uninterested — disinterested distrust — mistrust

Prefixation is the formation of words by means of adding a prefix to the stem. In English it is characteristic for forming verbs. Prefixes are more independent than suffixes.

Prefixes can be classified according to the nature of words in which they are used:

prefixes used in notional words and prefixes used in functional words. Prefixes used in notional words are proper prefixes which are bound morphemes, e.g. un- (unhappy). Prefixes used in functional words are semi-bound morphemes because they are met in the language as words, e.g. over- (overhead) (cf over the table).

The main function of prefixes in English is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech. But the recent research showed that about twenty-five prefixes in Modern English form one part of speech from another (bebutton, interfamily, postcollege etc).

Prefixes can be classified according to different principles:

1. Semantic classification:

a) prefixes of negative meaning:

in- (invaluable), non- (nonformals), un- (unfree) etc,

b) denoting repetition or reversal actions:

de- (decolonize), re- (revegetation), dis- (disconnect),

c) denoting time, space, degree relations:

inter- (interplanetary), hyper- (hypertension), ex- (ex-student), pre- (pre-election), over- (overdrugging) etc.

2. Origin of prefixes:

a) native (Germanic: un-, over-, under- etc.

b) Romanic: in-, de-, ex-, re- etc.

c) Greek: sym-, hyper — etc.

the root of the word (verb, company),

ad-, ac- prefixes though they were never used as prefixes to form new words in English and were borrowed from Romanic languages together with words. In such cases we can treat them as derived words. But some scientists treat them as simple words. Another group of words with a disputable structure:

contain, retain, detain and conceive, receive, deceive;

re-, de-, con- act as prefixes

tain, -ceive as roots. These combinations of sounds have no lexical meaning and are called pseudo-morphemes.

e.g. after -: afternoon.

TYPES OF MORPHEMES



Functional types of Morphemes

Word and its Meaning | Word Definition | Referential Approach | Functional approach | Types of connotations | Types of Compound Words | Conversion. The problem of Definition. | Conversion. Directionality | Minor Types of Modern Word-Building. | Back-Formation |

Structurally morphemes fall into three types: free morphemes, bound morphemes, semi-free (semi- bound) morphemes.

A free morpheme is defined as one that coincides with the stem 2 or a word-form. A great many root-morphemes are free morphemes, for example, the root-morpheme friend — of the noun friendship is natu-rally qualified as a free morpheme because it coincides with one of the forms of the noun friend.

A bound morpheme occurs only as a constituent part of a word. Affixes are, naturally, bound morphemes, for they always make part of a word, e.g. the suffixes -ness, -ship, -ise (-ize), etc., the prefixes un-, dis-, de-, etc. (e.g. readiness, comradeship, to activise; unnatural, to displease, to decipher).

Many root-morphemes also belong to the class of bound morphemes which always occur in morphemic sequences, i.e. in combinations with ‘ roots or affixes. All unique roots and pseudo-roots are-bound morphemes. Such are the root-morphemes theor- in theory, theoretical, etc., barbar-in barbarism, barbarian, etc., -ceive in conceive, perceive, etc.

Semi-bound (semi-free) morphemes1 are morphemes that can function in a morphemic sequence both as an affix and as a free mor-pheme. For example, the morpheme well and half on the one hand occur as free morphemes that coincide with the stem and the word-form in utter-ances like sleep well, half an hour,” on the other hand they occur as bound morphemes in words like well-known, half-eaten, half-done.

To the first group belong morphemes of Greek and Latin origin often called combining forms, e.g. telephone, telegraph, phonoscope, microscope, etc. The morphemes tele-, graph-, scope-, mi-cro-, phone- are characterised by a definite lexical meaning and peculiar stylistic reference: tele- means ‘far’, graph- means ‘writing’, scope — ’seeing’, micro- implies smallness, phone- means ’sound.’ Comparing words with tele- as their first constituent, such as telegraph, telephone, telegram one may conclude that tele- is a prefix and graph-, phone-, gram-are root-morphemes. On the other hand, words like phonograph, seismograph, autograph may create the impression that the second mor-pheme graph is a suffix and the first — a root-morpheme. This undoubt-edly would lead to the absurd conclusion that words of this group contain no root-morpheme and are composed of a suffix and a prefix which runs counter to the fundamental principle of word-structure. Therefore, there is only one solution to this problem; these morphemes are all bound root-morphemes of a special kind and such words belong to words made up of bound roots. The fact that these morphemes do not possess the part-of-speech meaning typical of affixational morphemes evidences their status as roots.2

The second group embraces morphemes occupying a kind of in-termediate position, morphemes that are changing their class membership.




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Classification of morphemes (free, bound, semi-bound, pseudo morphemes, unique morphemes)

MORPHEMES. FREE AND BOUND FORMS. MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF WORDS. WORD-FAMILIES



WORD STRUCTURE IN MODERN ENGLISH

  I.   The morphological structure of a word. Morphemes. Types of morphemes. Allomorphs.

II.   Structural types of words.

III.   Principles of morphemic analysis.

  IV.   Derivational level of analysis. Stems. Types of stems. Derivational types of words.

I.   The morphological structure of a word. Morphemes. Types of Morphemes.  Allomorphs.

There are two levels of approach to the study of word- structure: the level of morphemic analysis and the level of derivational or word-formation analysis.

Word is the principal and basic unit of the language system, the largest on the morphologic and the smallest on the syntactic plane of linguistic analysis.

It has been universally acknowledged that a great many words have a composite nature and are made up of morphemes, the basic units on the morphemic level, which are defined as the smallest indivisible two-facet language units.

The term morpheme is derived from Greek morphe “form ”+ -eme. The Greek suffix –eme has been adopted by linguistic to denote the smallest unit or the minimum distinctive feature.

The morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of form. A form in these cases a recurring discrete unit of speech. Morphemes occur in speech only as constituent parts of words, not independently, although a word may consist of single morpheme. Even a cursory examination of the morphemic structure of English words reveals that they are composed of morphemes of different types: root-morphemes and affixational morphemes. Words that consist of a root and an affix are called derived words or derivatives and are produced by the process of word building known as affixation (or derivation).

The root-morpheme is the lexical nucleus of the word; it has a very general and abstract lexical meaning common to a set of semantically related words constituting one word-cluster, e.g. (to) teach, teacher, teaching. Besides the lexical meaning root-morphemes possess all other types of meaning proper to morphemes except the part-of-speech meaning which is not found in roots.

Affixational morphemes include inflectional affixes or inflections and derivational affixes. Inflections carry only grammatical meaning and are thus relevant only for the formation of word-forms. Derivational affixes are relevant for building various types of words. They are lexically always dependent on the root which they modify. They possess the same types of meaning as found in roots, but unlike root-morphemes most of them have the part-of-speech meaning which makes them structurally the important part of the word as they condition the lexico-grammatical class the word belongs to. Due to this component of their meaning the derivational affixes are classified into affixes building different parts of speech: nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs.

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Roots and derivational affixes are generally easily distinguished and the difference between them is clearly felt as, e.g., in the words helpless, handy, blackness, Londoner, refill, etc.: the root-morphemes help-, hand-, black-, London-, fill-, are understood as the lexical centers of the words, and less, -y,      -ness, -er, re- are felt as morphemes dependent on these roots.

 Distinction is also made of free and bound morphemes.

It should also be noted that morphemes may have different phonemic shapes. In the word-cluster please , pleasing , pleasure , pleasant the phonemic shapes of the word stand in complementary distribution or in alternation with each other. All the representations of the given morpheme, that manifest alternation are called allomorphs/or morphemic variants/ of that morpheme.

The combining form allo- from Greek allos “other” is used in linguistic terminology to denote elements of a group whose members together consistute a structural unit of the language (allophones, allomorphs). Thus, for example, -ion/ -tion/ -sion/ -ation are the positional variants of the same suffix, they do not differ in meaning or function but show a slight difference in sound form depending on the final phoneme of the preceding stem. They are considered as variants of one and the same morpheme and called its allomorphs.

Allomorph is defined as a positional variant of a morpheme occurring in a specific environment and so characterized by complementary description.

Complementary distribution is said to take place, when two linguistic variants cannot appear in the same environment.

Different morphemes are characterized by contrastive distribution, i.e. if they occur in the same environment they signal different meanings. The suffixes –able and –ed, for instance, are different morphemes, not allomorphs, because adjectives in –able mean “ capable of beings”.

Allomorphs will also occur among prefixes. Their form then depends on the initials of the stem with which they will assimilate.

Two or more sound forms of a stem existing under conditions of complementary distribution may also be regarded as allomorphs, as, for instance, in long a: length n.

II. Structural types of words.

The morphological analysis of word- structure on the morphemic level aims at splitting the word into its constituent morphemes – the basic units at this level of analysis – and at determining their number and types. The four types (root words, derived words, compound, shortenings) represent the main structural types of Modern English words, and conversion, derivation and composition the most productive ways of word building.

According to the number of morphemes words can be classified into monomorphic and polymorphic. Monomorphic or root-words consist of only one root-morpheme, e.g. small, dog, make, give, etc. All polymorphic word fall into two subgroups:  derived words and compound words – according to the number of root-morphemes they have. Derived words are composed of one root-morpheme and one or more derivational morphemes, e.g. acceptable, outdo, disagreeable, etc. Compound words are those which contain at least two root-morphemes, the number of derivational morphemes being insignificant. There can be both root- and derivational morphemes in compounds as in pen-holder, light-mindedness, or only root-morphemes as in lamp-shade, eye-ball, etc.

These structural types are not of equal importance. The clue to the correct understanding of their comparative value lies in a careful consideration of: 1)the importance of each type in the existing wordstock, and 2) their frequency value in actual speech. Frequency is by far the most important factor. According to the available word counts made in different parts of speech, we find that derived words numerically constitute the largest class of words in the existing wordstock; derived nouns comprise approximately 67% of the total number, adjectives about 86%, whereas compound nouns make about 15% and adjectives about 4%. Root words come to 18% in nouns, i.e. a trifle more than the number of compound words; adjectives root words come to approximately 12%.

But we cannot fail to perceive that root-words occupy a predominant place. In English, according to the recent frequency counts, about 60% of the total number of nouns and 62% of the total number of adjectives in current use are root-words. Of the total number of adjectives and nouns, derived words comprise about 38% and 37% respectively while compound words comprise an insignificant 2% in nouns and 0.2% in adjectives. Thus it is the root-words that constitute the foundation and the backbone of the vocabulary and that are of paramount importance in speech. It should also be mentioned that root words are characterized by a high degree of collocability and a complex variety of meanings in contrast with words of other structural types whose semantic structures are much poorer. Root- words also serve as parent forms for all types of derived and compound words.

III. Principles of morphemic analysis.

In most cases the morphemic structure of words is transparent enough and individual morphemes clearly stand out within the word. The segmentation of words is generally carried out according to the method of Immediate and Ultimate Constituents. This method is based on the binary principle, i.e. each stage of the procedure involves two components the word immediately breaks into. At each stage these two components are referred to as the Immediate Constituents. Each Immediate Constituent at the next stage of analysis is in turn broken into smaller meaningful elements. The analysis is completed when we arrive at constituents incapable of further division, i.e. morphemes. These are referred to Ultimate Constituents.

A synchronic morphological analysis is most effectively accomplished by the procedure known as the analysis into Immediate Constituents. ICs are the two meaningful parts forming a large linguistic unity.

Breaking a word into its Immediate Constituents we observe in each cut the structural order of the constituents.

1. un- / gentlemanly

2.   un- / gentleman / — ly

3.   un- / gentle / — man / — ly

4.   un- / gentl / — e / — man / — ly

A similar analysis on the word-formation level showing not only the morphemic constituents of the word but also the structural pattern on which it is built.

Morphemic analysis under the method of Ultimate Constituents may be carried out on the basis of two principles: the so-called root-principle and affix principle.

According to the affix principle the splitting of the word into its constituent morphemes is based on the identification of the affix within a set of words, e.g. the identification of the suffix –er leads to the segmentation of words singer, teacher, swimmer into the derivational morpheme er  and the roots teach- , sing-, drive-.

According to the root-principle, the segmentation of the word is based on the identification of the root-morpheme in a word-cluster, for example the identification of the root-morpheme agree-  in the words agreeable, agreement, disagree.

As a rule, the application of these principles is sufficient for the morphemic segmentation of words.

IV.   Derivational level of analysis. Stems. Types of Stems. Derivational types of word.

The morphemic analysis of words only defines the constituent morphemes, determining their types and their meaning but does not reveal the hierarchy of the morphemes comprising the word. Words are no mere sum totals of morpheme, the latter reveal a definite, sometimes very complex interrelation. Morphemes are arranged according to certain rules, the arrangement differing in various types of words and particular groups within the same types. The pattern of morpheme arrangement underlies the classification of words into different types and enables one to understand how new words appear in the language. These relations within the word and the interrelations between different types and classes of words are known as derivative or word- formation relations.

The analysis of derivative relations aims at establishing a correlation between different types and the structural patterns words are built on. The basic unit at the derivational level is the stem.

The stem is defined as that part of the word which remains unchanged throughout its paradigm, thus the stem which appears in the paradigm (to) ask ( ), asks, asked, asking is ask-; thestem of the word singer ( ), singer’s, singers, singers’ is singer-. It is the stem of the word that takes the inflections which shape the word grammatically as one or another part of speech.

The structure of stems should be described in terms of IC’s analysis, which at this level aims at establishing the patterns of typical derivative relations within the stem and the derivative correlation between stems of different types.

There are three types of stems: simple, derived and compound.

Derived stems are built on stems of various structures though which they are motivated, i.e. derived stems are understood on the basis  of the derivative relations between their IC’s and the correlated stems. The derived stems are mostly polymorphic in which case the segmentation results only in one IC that is itself a stem, the other IC being necessarily a derivational affix.

Derived stems are not necessarily polymorphic.

Compound stems are made up of two IC’s, both of which are themselves stems, for example match-box, driving-suit, pen-holder, etc. It is built by joining of two stems, one of which is simple, the other derived.

In more complex cases the result of the analysis at the two levels sometimes seems even to contracted one another.

The derivational types of words are classified according to the structure of their stems into simple, derived and compound words.

Compound words contain at least two root- morphemes, the number of derivational morphemes being insignificant.

Derivational compound is a word formed by a simultaneous process of composition and derivational.

Compound words proper are formed by joining together stems of word already available in the language.

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