Hey, there! Welcome to this video on root words, prefixes, and suffixes.
Many of the words we speak in English are made up of Latin and Greek words, but we have added prefixes and suffixes to them. Prefixes and suffixes are known as affixes.
The original word, before you add the affixes, is known as a root word. A root word can stand on its own as a complete word. For example the word reform. Re- is the prefix, and form is the root word. Form, by itself, is still a word. A root, on the other hand, does not typically make up a complete word on its own. For example, transmit. The trans is the prefix meaning across, and mit is the root meaning “to send.” Mit, by itself, is not a complete word.
Now, let’s take a look at what prefixes and suffixes actually are.
Words can be long and difficult at times, but understanding root words and the affixes can help you to understand the meaning of those long words and make them less scary.
New words can be made by adding a prefix before or a suffix after a root or root word.
When an affix is added before the root or root word, it is called a prefix. A helpful way to remember this is by looking at the word prefix itself. Pre means “before,” and a prefix comes before the root or root word.
A prefix often changes the meaning of a word. For instance, the word usual just means that something is customary or habitual. However, when you add the prefix un-, meaning “not” or “opposite of,” to the beginning, it changes the meaning of the word. Now, we have the word unusual, which means that something is not usual, not common, or is rare. Prefixes have definitions of their own, so when we add them onto a root word or root, we have to understand that the meaning of the word has been modified.
Now, an affix that is added to the end of a root or root word is called a suffix. Unlike a prefix, a suffix typically does not change the meaning of the word, at least not in a major way. Instead, a suffix typically adds more specification. For instance, if I say that someone is tall, you think of a person who is above the average or normal height. However, when I say someone is taller, I’m letting you know that a person is tall in comparison to another person, but they may not be tall in general.
Take a look:
Mark is tall.
Mark is taller than Jeff.
The meaning of the word is still referring to the height of a person or an object, but adding the suffix has changed the specification.
A suffix can add plurality, which just means that there are more than one of something. The most popular suffixes are -s and -es. These are examples of suffixes that add plurality. I actually just did this with the word suffix. When I just say “suffix,” I am letting you know that there is only one, but when I say “suffixes,” I’ve added plurality, letting you know that there is more than one.
Words can have a prefix, root or root word, and suffix all in one.
Let’s look at the word destruction
De- is the prefix meaning “opposite.” Struct is the Latin root meaning “to build,” and -ion is the suffix meaning “act or process.” Understanding the meaning of prefixes, roots or root words, and suffixes helps us to understand the proper meaning of a word. With our definition of the prefix, root, and suffix, in the word destruction, we can see that the opposite of building is happening.
There are thousands of roots and root words out there that are used in the English language. There are fewer prefixes and suffixes combined than there are roots and root words. Practice finding the prefixes, roots and root words, and suffixes in the words you use in class and at home.
The more you practice, the easier it will be for you to understand the meaning of words that you have never even heard of.
I hope this video on prefixes, roots and root words, and suffixes was helpful for you!
See you next time!
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What is the meaning of non example?
Filters. Example that is irrelevant to a rule or a definition already shown, used for a clearer explanation. noun.
- What does non mean as a prefix?
- What does the word non mean in Latin?
- What does the prefix non mean in membean?
- Which is the root word for not in English?
- Are there any words that start with a non?
- What does the prefix non mean in English?
- 50 Greek and Latin Root Words Descriptor , form , signifier , word form the phonological or orthographic sound or appearance of a word that can be used to describe or identify something
- Cosmos Is Also An Independent Root Word In English. (Gail Tompkins, Rod Campbell, David Green, And Carol Smith, Literacy For The 21St Century:
- 1 N (Linguistics) The Form Of A Word After All Affixes Are Removed Synonyms:
- To Move Or Do Words:
- By Adding Prefixes And Suffixes To A Root Word We Can Change Its Meaning.
- FREE! 120 Commonly Used Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes
- List of English Root Words
- What Exactly Is the Root Word?
- English Root Word List
- English words with the root word’mal’ –
- Common English Words with Root Words
What does non mean as a prefix?
a prefix meaning “not,” freely used as an English formative, usually with a simple negative force as implying mere negation or absence of something (rather than the opposite or reverse of it, as often expressed by un-1): nonadherence; noninterference; nonpayment; nonprofessional.
What does the word non mean in Latin?
What does the prefix non mean in membean?
You can remember that the prefix non- means “not” via the word non poisonous, for a substance that is non poisonous is “not” poisonous. Want to read it instead? The word ingredient Memlet, shown below, is one of many ways that a word is taught in Membean.
Which is the root of the word new?
The Latin root word nov means “new.” This Latin root is the word origin of a good number of English vocabulary words, including nov el, super nov a, and re nov ate. The Latin root word nov is easily recalled through the English word nov el, for a nov el experience is one that has never happened before and so is “new” to you.
Which is the Latin root of the word Nov?
This Latin root is the word origin of a good number of English vocabulary words, including nov el, super nov a, and re nov ate. The Latin root word nov is easily recalled through the English word nov el, for a nov el experience is one that has never happened before and so is “new” to you. Want to read it instead?
Which is the root word for not in English?
English for Students. non. This ROOT-WORD is the Prefix NON which means NOT in practically all languages in some similar form. You have already had IN and IM meaning NOT and UN meaning NOT. You will see that NON is not as emphatic as IN, IM and UN.
Are there any words that start with a non?
Found 2358 words that start with non. Browse our Scrabble Word Finder, Words With Friends cheat dictionary, and WordHub word solver to find words starting with non. Or use our Unscramble word solver to find your best possible play!
What does the prefix non mean in English?
The English prefix non-, which means “not,” appears in hundreds of English vocabulary words, such as non sense, non fat, and non returnable. You can remember that the prefix non- means “not” via the word non poisonous, for a substance that is non poisonous is “not” poisonous.
The Latin root word nov means “new.” This Latin root is the word origin of a good number of English vocabulary words, including nov el, super nov a, and re nov ate. The Latin root word nov is easily recalled through the English word nov el, for a nov el experience is one that has never happened before and so is “new” to you.
He 25 Step What Is The Root Word Meaning For Women, In the sense that a root word is the basis of a new word, it is a word that has affixes (prefixes and suffixes). In this article, we provide to you a.
50 Greek and Latin Root Words From thoughtco.com
The root of dehydrate is the greek root hydr which means water and just like the latin root from the previous example, hydr is not an english word. In english, this is transformed into “chron”, which is used as the root word for terms that have to do with time in one way or another. (prefixes and suffixes are known as affixes.) A root of any word holds the most basic meaning of the word;
50 Greek and Latin Root Words Descriptor , form , signifier , word form the phonological or orthographic sound or appearance of a word that can be used to describe or identify something
By adding prefixes and suffixes to a root word we can change its meaning. In general the word root will indicate the body system or part of the body that is being discussed. Logos is the greek root of a word an example of a word using. What is the greek root word for logos?
Yet kiddushin, the word for the sanctification of marriage, comes from the same root. By adding prefixes and suffixes to a root word we can change its meaning. In general the word root will indicate the body system or part of the body that is being discussed. To move or do words: 50 Greek and Latin Root Words.
Cosmos is also an independent root word in english. (gail tompkins, rod campbell, david green, and carol smith, literacy for the 21st century: The root word “port” comes from the latin word “portus”, which would be translated into english as “safe haven”. In morphology, a root is a morphologically simple unit which can be left bare or to which a prefix or a suffix can attach. What does a root word usually indicate quizlet? Meaning from roots Root words, Teaching vocabulary, Language study.
To change the meaning of a word, a prefix can be added to the front of the word root, or a suffix can be added to the back. The latin root word loc means. It is always written with a / between the word root and the combining vowel. They can help us understand the meanings of new words. english grammarRadix Tree Online Tutoring & Training Services.
You can create a new word by adding the element “reen. Base , radical , root , stem , theme type of: Now that you are already familiar with root words, let’s take a look at how root words combine with prefixes and suffixes to form new words. The verb “to port” means “to carry something”. 100 Vocabulary Words With Meaning And Sentence David SimchiLevi.
Some common english words that use this root include bio logy, mytho logy, cata log, and pro log ue. ” this meaning is found in such words as: A root word is a basic word with no prefix or suffix added to it (a prefix is a string of letters that go at the start of a word; A root of any word holds the most basic meaning of the word; Root Word Examples World of Example.
In english, you attach “chron” to words instead of “chrono” because “chron” ends in a. The latin root word loc means. It is what is left after you remove the prefixes and the suffixes. The root word “port” comes from the latin word “portus”, which would be translated into english as “safe haven”. Everything Prefixes The Curriculum Corner 123.
The root word is the primary lexical unit of a word, and of a word family (this root is then called the base word), which carries aspects of semantic content and cannot be. A root (or root word) is the core of a word that is irreducible into more meaningful elements. Abjure, conjure, injure, juridical, jurisdiction, jury, perjure. A word root is the base part of a word (i.e., less any prefixes and suffixes). *A ‘root’ word is a part of a A ‘root’ word is a part of a word. It.
The root word is the primary lexical unit of a word, and of a word family (this root is then called the base word), which carries aspects of semantic content and cannot be. How to find the root of a. In the sense that a root word is the basis of a new word, it is a word that has affixes (prefixes and suffixes). Definition of root word in the definitions.net dictionary. PREFIX 35+ Common Prefixes (with Meaning and Useful Examples) • 7ESL.
What does root word mean? 1 n (linguistics) the form of a word after all affixes are removed synonyms: 45 common roots with meanings; What is the greek root word for logos? Reading class Word Parts Root prefix suffix ( pages 62 69 ) unit 4.
Words that are derived from “port” will have some element of either of these definitions, and often will have both. The root word “port” comes from the latin word “portus”, which would be translated into english as “safe haven”. Base , radical , root , stem , theme type of: Abjure, conjure, injure, juridical, jurisdiction, jury, perjure. Logo Root Word Definition.
45 common roots with meanings; A word root is the base part of a word (i.e., less any prefixes and suffixes). These often come from latin and greek, and typically do not stand alone as a complete word. Some of these words contain the root word loqu, meaning to speak or to talk.words containing the root word loqu can look difficult at first, but once you see the root word loqu in them, and know that it has. root words How to Articles Pinterest Root words and Word building.
Abjure, conjure, injure, juridical, jurisdiction, jury, perjure. These often come from latin and greek, and typically do not stand alone as a complete word. Definition of root word in the definitions.net dictionary. ” this meaning is found in such words as: Unlocking the world of words context clues and word parts.
What does root word mean? How to use root words to form new words? Definition of root word in the definitions.net dictionary. Quite often, a prefix and a suffix are added to a word root to change the meaning. Root Words Boost Your English Vocabulary With 45 Root Words My.
In general the word root will indicate the body system or part of the body that is being discussed. How to find the root of a. By adding prefixes and suffixes to a root word we can change its meaning. How to use root words to form new words? Root Words.
Any subterranean plant part (such as a true root or a bulb,. This is why one of the modern meanings of. The latin root word loc means. To change the meaning of a word, a prefix can be added to the front of the word root, or a suffix can be added to the back. English Prefixes List, Meanings and Example Words Prefix Meaning.
To move or do words: ” this meaning is found in such words as: A root word is a basic word with no prefix or suffix added to it (a prefix is a string of letters that go at the start of a word; In general the word root will indicate the body system or part of the body that is being discussed. Meaning, Definition of Form Root Word and Words based on Form.
Now that you are already familiar with root words, let’s take a look at how root words combine with prefixes and suffixes to form new words. It is what is left after you remove the prefixes and the suffixes. To change the meaning of a word, a prefix can be added to the front of the word root, or a suffix can be added to the back. What does a root word usually indicate quizlet? 3rd Grade Grapevine December Freebie Powerful Prefixes.
Quite often, a prefix and a suffix are added to a word root to change the meaning. A root of any word holds the most basic meaning of the word; The root word “chron” sees its origins in the greek term “chronos”, which means “time”. Definition of root word in the definitions.net dictionary. Root words.
Cosmos Is Also An Independent Root Word In English. (Gail Tompkins, Rod Campbell, David Green, And Carol Smith, Literacy For The 21St Century:
” this meaning is found in such words as: Words that are derived from “port” will have some element of either of these definitions, and often will have both. What does root word mean? These often come from latin and greek, and typically do not stand alone as a complete word.
1 N (Linguistics) The Form Of A Word After All Affixes Are Removed Synonyms:
In english, this is transformed into “chron”, which is used as the root word for terms that have to do with time in one way or another. Any subterranean plant part (such as a true root or a bulb,. (prefixes and suffixes are known as affixes.) Thematic vowels are part of the stem.
To Move Or Do Words:
In your daily life, you might come across many words with different roots, it’s important to know the meaning of these words before you can guess the meaning of the said word. The root is the basis for a new word, but it. According to your dictionary, a root word is a word or word part that forms the basis of new words through the addition of prefixes and suffixes. Some common english words that use this root include bio logy, mytho logy, cata log, and pro log ue.
By Adding Prefixes And Suffixes To A Root Word We Can Change Its Meaning.
Lesson plan for teaching compound words; For example in the combining form cardi/o cardi is the word root and /o is the combining vowel. Are you siding with the defender of the title? i’m pulling for the underdog. Now that you are already familiar with root words, let’s take a look at how root words combine with prefixes and suffixes to form new words.
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The English language is filled with words borrowed from ancient Greek and Latin, which makes supplementing your instruction with word parts practice that much more critical. There are countless ways to incorporate word parts into your lesson plans. You may already have a structured plan in place, or you might be testing the waters. Either way, teach your students to be word detectives. A word detective looks at all the clues to determine a word’s meaning. When students know how to decode large words by identifying root words and affixes, they will be sufficiently prepared to tackle higher level texts.
The table below lists 120 commonly used Greek and Latin root words, prefixes, and suffixes. It also includes the meaning of each word part and several example words. It’s a great place to start if you’re interested in adding a regularly scheduled word parts practice to your daily teaching agenda.
FREE! 120 Commonly Used Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes
Brooke Khan, M.A.Ed
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The root is conventionally indicated using the mathematical symbol √; for instance, the Sanskrit root «» means the root «».
The root of a word is a unit of meaning (morpheme) and, as such, it is an abstraction, though it can usually be represented alphabetically as a word. For example, it can be said that the root of the English verb form running is run, or the root of the Spanish superlative adjective amplísimo is ampli-, since those words are derived from the root forms by simple suffixes that do not alter the roots in any way. In particular, English has very little inflection and a tendency to have words that are identical to their roots. But more complicated inflection, as well as other processes, can obscure the root; for example, the root of mice is mouse (still a valid word), and the root of interrupt is, arguably, rupt, which is not a word in English and only appears in derivational forms (such as disrupt, corrupt, rupture, etc.). The root rupt can be written as if it were a word, but it is not.
This distinction between the word as a unit of speech and the root as a unit of meaning is even more important in the case of languages where roots have many different forms when used in actual words, as is the case in Semitic languages. In these, roots (semitic roots) are formed by consonants alone, and speakers elaborate different words (belonging potentially to different parts of speech) from the root by inserting different vowels. For example, in Hebrew, the root ג-ד-ל g-d-l represents the idea of largeness, and from it we have gadol and gdola (masculine and feminine forms of the adjective «big»), gadal «he grew», higdil «he magnified» and magdelet «magnifier», along with many other words such as godel «size» and migdal «tower».
Secondary roots are roots with changes in them, producing a new word with a slightly different meaning. In English, a rough equivalent would be to see conductor as a secondary root formed from the root to conduct. In abjad languages, the most familiar of which are Arabic and Hebrew, in which families of secondary roots are fundamental to the language, secondary roots are created by changes in the roots’ vowels, by adding or removing the long vowels a, i, u, e and o. (Notice that Arabic does not have the vowels e and o.) In addition, secondary roots can be created by prefixing (m−, t−), infixing (−t−), or suffixing (−i, and several others). There is no rule in these languages on how many secondary roots can be derived from a single root; some roots have few, but other roots have many, not all of which are necessarily in current use.
Consider the Arabic language:
- مركز [mrkz] or [markaza] meaning ‘centralized (masculine, singular)’, from [markaz] ‘centre’, from [rakaza] ‘plant into the earth, stick up (a lance)’ ( ر-ك-ز | r-k-z). This in turn has derived words [markaziy], meaning ‘central’, [markaziy:ah], meaning ‘centralism’ or ‘centralization’, and , [la:markaziy:ah] ‘decentralization’
- أرجح [rjh] or [ta’arjaħa] meaning ‘oscillated (masculine, singular)’, from [‘urju:ħa] ‘swing (n)’, from [rajaħa] ‘weighed down, preponderated (masculine, singular)’ ( ر-ج-ح | r-j-ħ).
- محور [mhwr] or [tamaħwara] meaning ‘centred, focused (masculine, singular)’, from [mihwar] meaning ‘axis’, from [ħa:ra] ‘turned (masculine, singular)’ (ح-و-ر | h-w-r).
- مسخر [msxr], تمسخر [tamasxara] meaning ‘mocked, made fun (masculine, singular)’, from مسخرة [masxara] meaning ‘mockery’, from سخر [saxira] ‘mocked (masculine, singular)’ (derived from س-خ-ر[s-x-r]).» Similar cases may be found in other Semitic languages such as Hebrew, Syriac, Aramaic, Maltese language and to a lesser extent Amharic.
According to Ghil’ad Zuckermann, «this process is morphologically similar to the production of frequentative (iterative) verbs in Latin, for example:
- iactito ‘to toss about’ derives from iacto ‘to boast of, keep bringing up, harass, disturb, throw, cast, fling away’, which in turn derives from iacio ‘to throw, cast’ (from its past participle iactum).
Consider the root √š-m-n (ש-מ-נ).
Although all words vary semantically, the general meaning of a greasy, fatty material can be attributed to the root.
- Katamba, Francis (2006). Morphology (2nd ed.). Houndsmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 42. ISBN 9781403916440.
- «Root». Glossary of Linguistic Terms. 3 December 2015.
- Kemmer, Suzanne. «Words in English: Structure». Words in English. Retrieved 2018.
- Wehr, Hans (1976). Cowan, J Milton (ed.). Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (3rd ed.). Ithaca, N.Y.: Spoken Language Services. p. 358. ISBN 0-87950-001-8. Retrieved 2020.
- ^ a b c d Zuckermann, Ghil’ad 2003, Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-1723-X. pp 65–66.
- ^ a b c d e f Lohndal, Terje (28 February 2020). «Syntactic Categorization of Roots». Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.257. ISBN 978-0-19-938465-5.
- Levinson, Lisa (27 November 2014). «The ontology of roots and verbs». The Syntax of Roots and the Roots of Syntax: 208–229. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199665266.003.0010. ISBN 978-0199665273.
- Acquaviva, Paolo (May 2009). «Roots and Lexicality in Distributed Morphology». York Papers in Linguistics. University of York. Department of Language and Linguistic Science. 2 (10). hdl:10197/4148.
- Coon, Jessica (1 February 2019). «Building verbs in Chuj: Consequences for the nature of roots». Journal of Linguistics. 55 (1): 35–81. doi:10.1017/S0022226718000087. S2CID 149423392.
- ^ a b c Arad, Maya (2003). «Locality Constraints on the Interpretation of Roots: The Case of Hebrew Denominal Verbs». Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. 21 (4): 737–778. doi:10.1023/A:1025533719905. S2CID 35715020.
- Alexiadou, Artemis; Lohndal, Terje (18 May 2017). «On the division of labor between roots and functional structure». The Verbal Domain. 1. doi:10.1093/oso/9780198767886.003.0004. hdl:.
Learning root words in English not only helps you get top results in the verbal ability area of competitive tests, but it also helps you improve your overall English vocabulary abilities.
English is a crucial portion of different government exams such as Bank, SSC, RRB, and so on, and aspirants preparing for these exams must have a decent vocabulary to master this section.
Because the English language is so wide and diverse, it is impossible to remember each and every word and its meaning. As a result, English root words can assist you in readily understanding the meaning of all the words.
As a result, this article will present a list of root terms together with extensive explanations. Candidates will also be able to download the root words pdf for their convenience.
List of English Root Words
To comprehend vocabulary, we must first comprehend each term and the history associated with it. Because it is a synthesis of all popular languages such as Spanish, Latin, and Greek, English is regarded as a global language. Learning the basic terms would make it easier for aspirants to figure out the meaning of new words when they come across them.
What Exactly Is the Root Word?
A root word is a term that serves as the foundation for new words by incorporating affixes (prefixes or suffixes). It is the most fundamental component of any word.
The essential structure of roots is affixed or suffixed, and the result is a new word. Understanding the common root terms can help you make solid guesses about the meaning of new words, which will enhance your vocabulary.
Check out General English for Competitive Exams for a variety of conceptually oriented subjects and explanations.
Let’s look at some root words in English, their combinations, and the various new words that result from them.
English Root Word List
- Root Word – Mal – a Latin word, Meaning – bad or evil.
English words with the root word’mal’ –
- Malign – to slander something.
- Malice – malicious intent Maltreat – Neglect someone or something.
- Malfunction – ineffective operation
- bleak – a bleak situation
- Malevolent – Someone who purposefully tries to hurt someone.
All words with the root word’mal’ have a negative meaning.
Candidates can prepare for the English portion by reviewing the List of Homophones/Homonyms in the provided link.
2. Root Word – Phobia, Meaning – Fear or dislike
English words formed of it –
- Demophobia – Demophobia is defined as a dread of public speaking.
- People who are afraid of animals are said to have zoophobia.
- Theophobia – Because that is God/Religion, a person who fears religion suffers from theophobia.
- Pedophobia – Because pedo means “kid,” a person who dislikes children has pedophobia.
- Gynophobia – hate of girls/women because Gyno is a girl/woman.
You can view the List of Phobias in the provided link, which is also useful for the general awareness part.
3. Fin is a Latin term that means “to end something, limit, or boundary.”
English terms with the word ‘Fin’ in them –
- There is no limit to infinity.
- Infinitesimal – infinitely small
- Confinement – the final stage of pregnancy
- Precise – Definite
As we can see, the terms signify to come to an end or limit something. Examples: At the end of the course, we take a final test. Anyone who watches reality television shows will have seen the Finale episode or the final episode of the season. The Finish line is the finish line of a race.
4. Root word – Phil – a Greek word, Meaning – to Love.
English word with root word ‘Phil’-
- A bibliophile is someone who enjoys reading.
- Philologist – a language expert who loves words
- A philanthropist is someone who cares about people.
- A philosopher is someone who values wisdom.
Philodendron – A type of tree that folds up while growing and is known as a love tree.
As we can see, all of the root words are related to love. Did you know that the name Philadelphia means “City of Brotherly Love”?
5. Root word – Logy a Greek word, Meaning – to study something
Words formed with the root word ‘logy’ are –
- The analogy is the study of two or more items being compared.
- Anthropology is the study of humans, as the word “anthropic” implies “human.”
- Theology is the study of religion because ‘the’ implies God.
- Morphology refers to the study of structures. Morph stands for structures.
The examples of ‘logy’ root words presented above are part of the one-word replacement, which is another significant topic to examine in the English language department. Candidates can use the category-specific list of one-word substitutions to help them prepare.
6. Root word – Thie, a Greek word – meaning – God/Religion
English words formed using the root word ‘Thei’ are –
- Theist – Because ‘ist’ means “follower,” a theist is someone who believes in God.
- Atheist – Someone who does not believe in God.
- Pantheist – Pan means “all over,” hence a Pantheist is someone who believes in God in all religions.
- Monotheist – Because mono means “one,” persons who believe in only one god are monotheists.
Check out the One Word Substitution Questions and Answers from various government exams.
7. Root term – Fact – Latin origin – Meaning – something that is “made” or “done” Let’s look at the different words that have this root word –
- A factory is a location where something is “produced.”
- Manufactured: A location where something is made. Manufactured originally meant something produced on a huge scale.
- Artifact – anything produced by human hands
- A factor is a “creator.” A beautiful painting done by someone, for example, is a deciding factor in who earned the title of master- painter.
- A benefactor is someone who does good for others.
- Stupefaction – anything that utterly surprised you
- Petrifaction is a superpower that causes individuals to turn into stones simply by looking at them.
- Malefactor – someone who causes harm to humans.
- Satisfaction – enough done
All words derived from the root word ‘fact’ refer to something done or made.
8. Dict/Dic – a Latin term – Meaning- To say
English words with Dict/Dic in them –
- Prediction – mention anything before time.
- Dictated – tell someone something Verdict – speak or say the truth
- Indicate – make something known by expressing it.
- Contradict – express something in opposition to Dictionary – a book that informs us how to pronounce a specific word correctly.
- When we wish to proclaim or declare that we are in love with something, we use the word addicted.
- Idioms And Phrases
- List of Synonyms and Antonyms
- Letter Writing Format
- Active And Passive Voice Rules
9. Cide is a Latin term that means “a person or anything that kills” or “the act of killing.”
Many words in the English language are derived from the base word Cide –
- Patricide – Because Patri means “Father,” killing one’s father is considered Patricide.
- Uxoricide – A husband murders his wife; Uxor means “wife.”
- Maritricide – Because marit is a husband, matricide is the killing of one’s husband.
- Infanticide – A child is an infant, and killing a child is infanticide.
As a result, words with the root word Cide connote the killing of someone or something.
10. Anti is a Greek word with the meaning “opposite” or “against.”
English words derived from the root word ‘Anti’ –
- Antiseptic – works to prevent infection
- Antidote – a substance that works against the poison’s effect.
- Antisocial – acting in opposition to social standards
- Antioxidants are chemicals that operate against chemical processes that harm an organism’s cells.
Remember that everything containing the root word ‘anti’ is designed to do the opposite of or in opposition to something.
Candidates can use the websites provided below to practice and revise crucial verbal ability themes tested in various government examinations.
Check out the linked website for additional such questions and answers on numerous topics, as well as more concepts and rules-based explanations of many topics addressed in the Verbal Ability area.
Common English Words with Root Words
Certain root words can be used as a solo term or as part of other common words in the English language. Some common English terms that are also root words are listed below:
- Other English words for act include actor, acting, and reenactment.
- Crypt – To conceal; other English words include cryptic, apocryphal, and cryptography.
- Ego – Self-importance, Other terms created from it egomaniac, egocentric, egotist
- Legal means “connected to the law,” and equivalent synonyms in English include “illegal,” “legalities,” and “paralegal.”
- Meaning – shape, terms derived from it – conform, reform, formulate
- Phobia – meaning fear – terms derived from this root word have already been addressed.
- Other English words for norm include anomalous, paranormal, and normalcy.
The list of root words that derive from Latin or Greek roots and serve as the foundation for several English words is provided below.
The table below gives the English root words taken from the Latin language:
Ricardo: “I can say ‘The price is uncorrect?’”
Me: “No, the right word is incorrect.”
Me: “Great question.”
Enter this post.
The English language provides us with several ways to negate words, one of which is the use of negative affixes (i.e. prefixes and suffixes). In other words, a letter or group of letters can be attached to the beginning (prefix) or end (suffix) of a word to change its meaning. Although prefixes and suffixes can be used in a variety of scenarios to modify the meaning of a root word, this post will address their use as a method for negating words. Take for example the above interaction. In order to obtain the opposite/negative/contrary meaning of the word correct, we had to add the prefix in-, resulting in the word incorrect.
But how do we know the word is incorrect, not uncorrect? Unstable, not instable? Irregular, not unregular?
Both in- and un- convey the meaning of “not something,” which can lead to confusion regarding which (if any) prefixes to use. This post will start by describing the different prefixes (10 in total!) and one suffix that can be used to negate a word. The next section will address some exceptions and other interesting comments. Finally, I will complete a brief comparative analysis of the use of negative affixes in other languages.
NEGATIVE PREFIXES AND SUFFIX
Source: prepared using data from Merriam Webster’s online dictionary.
*Exceptions discussed in further detail below.
The question is, with so many options, how do native speakers and learners of English know which prefix to use? Unfortunately, there are few rules in this regard and those that do exist are based on the origin of the root word (Germanic, Greek or Latin) which, I imagine, most people and, in particular, nonnative speakers, will not know.
This prefix has its roots in the Greek prefix “a-,” which means “without” or “lack of.”
When is this prefix used? And, again, bear in mind that these are not strict rules, but rather just a few useful observations.
- Often used with adjectives formed from nouns: (color – (a)chromatic ; symmetry – (a)symmetric)
- Adjectives ending in –al (e.g. amoral, asexual, atypical, asymmetrical)
- Words of Greek origin (dictionary.com is a good place t0 check word origin)
- Technical or scientific words (e.g. atrophy, anarchism, anorexia, asymmetry)
- Not usually used with verbs or adverbs
One final note. Although this prefix is generally used before words starting with a consonant, when it does precede a word starting with a vowel, the prefix becomes an–.
This prefix has several meanings and can be used with verbs, adjectives, nouns and adverbs! As with all the other prefixes in this category, this prefix can mean “not ______” or “lacking of.” However, as we will see in the section on reversative/privative prefixes, it can also mean “opposite of.”
As the origin of the prefix comes from Latin, this word is often used with words of Latin origin. (e.g. disloyal, dishonest, discomfort).
- im– before words beginning with m or p (e.g. immaterial, impertinent, imperfect)
- il– before words beginning with l (e.g. illegal, illegitimate, illegible)
- ir– before words beginning with r (e.g. irrelevant, irrational, irrelevant)
The prefix in- can also be modified to ig–, although this is not very common. The only words I can think of are ignoble and ignominious, and none of these words are used very frequently.
As mentioned above, this prefix means “not _____.” However, it is important to note that this prefix may also sometimes be used to add emphasis to/intensify a word. This is the case with the words invaluable, illuminate, innovative, incredible, and inflammable.
A common complaint of English learners, and what triggered this post, is the difference between in- and un-. These two prefixes are the most commonly confused. On a very basic level, the distinction here is that in- comes from Latin and is therefore used primarily with words of Latin origin, whereas words of Germanic origin tend to take the prefix un- (Fowler). However, it’s not quite as simple as it sounds.
As with many aspects of English grammar, there is much inconsistency in the use of these prefixes. Over the course of history, this inconsistency has been primarily driven by the availability of a foreign (in-) and a native (un-) prefix, both with the same meaning. As the English language was developing, it faced a choice between directly adopting foreign words (in-) or translating those words into English by changing the prefix to un-.
This prefix is one of the two prefixes (together with ANTI-) that is most frequently used to create new words in the English language.
This is the most commonly used prefix to negate words to obtain the meaning “not + word.” So, when in doubt, use un-. It is interesting to note that this was not always the case, but un- is currently the preferred prefix as between in- and un-.
This prefix also has an additional meaning, which will be addressed under the section on reversative and privative prefixes.
Reversative and Privative Prefixes
These prefixes, together with the remaining prefixes discussed below, are not technically negative prefixes in the strict sense, but still convey the idea that we are straying from the meaning of the main word and heading into antonym-ish world.
Let me first start by breaking down what the heck “reversative” and “privative” mean. Reversative prefixes refer to the reversal of something and privative prefixes are used to convey the idea of “lacking.”
When used with a verb, or with an adjective or adverb derived from the verb, it generally means the “opposite of.” (e.g. disenchanted, disagree, disprove).
When this prefix is used to modify a verb, un- means “to undo or reverse the action.” For example, untie, unfasten, unbuckle, etc. You may have noticed in the table above that there is another prefix (de-) that can be used to mean reversal of an action.
The only suffix of this type, making its application and use very easy. It is used to express the idea that something does not have the quality of the base word. For example, odorless, meaningless, speechless.
Pejorative prefixes are prefixes that provide a negative evaluation of the word being modified.
MAL- (badly) and MIS- (wrongly)
Mal- and Mis- are probably two of the easiest prefixes to apply. The former means badly and the latter wrongly. Although “bad” and “wrong” may at first glance appear tobe one and the same, there are slight differences. For example, you may heat a whole gallon of ice cream in one sitting. Is this bad, as in unhealthy, not good for you? Yes. Is it wrong? Probably only if someone forbade you to eat it and you did so anyway.
Examples with “mal-“: malnourished, malodorous, maladjusted
Examples with “mis-“: misadvise, misconduct, misdiagnose
Opposition prefixes are those that can be added to a word to convey the idea of opposite, opposed or against.
This one is relatively simple to use and also very helpful. It is used in three separate contexts:
- “opposed to” Examples: anti-Semitism
- “opposite” Examples: antithesis, antisocial
- “acting to prevent sth.” Examples: antibodies, antiaging, antifreeze, anti-inflammatory
This prefix means the opposite of something. Consider counterclockwise, the opposite of clockwise. Examples: counterintuitive, counterfire, counterclaim, counterterrorism, and counterstrike (yes, as in the videogame).
SPECIAL CASES, EXCEPTIONS AND FINAL COMMENTS
As you probably noticed if you haven’t been bored to death reading this and actually made it to this point, words formed with these prefixes are sometimes joined using a hyphen (e.g. anti-American). So, when do we need to use a hyphen?
- Depending on the personal preference of the writer, when there is a double vowel or double consonant (e.g. non-native, anti-inflammatory). Exception: hyphens are never used with the prefix in- (illegal)
- Base word is a proper name/capitalized word (anti-American, sub-Saharan, un-English)
- Before numbers (post-9/11)
- With nouns formed using more than one prefix (non-self-governing)
- Separating repeated double prefixes (sub-subsection)
- If the prefix can stand alone as its own word (over-, under-, macro-, micro-, ex-, self-) Note: this does not apply to any of the prefixes addressed herein
Luckily, this is the exception, and most words seem to maintain the same prefix across the different word forms. I was unable to find a specific rule (if there is one), on when words take the same prefixes and when not. Any knowledge/input on this topic would be awesome!
Multiple Prefixes per Word
Another note. A lot of words will accept numerous prefixes, but it is important to understand that this does not mean they are interchangeable. The choice of prefix will, in some cases, change the meaning of the word.
This first group of words that can take more than one suffix poses minimal problems for language learners, as the different prefixes the word accepts have different meanings.
Misdiagnosed: diagnosed improperly
Undiagnosed: not diagnosed at all, no diagnosis was provided
Misinformed: to be inaccurately apprised of something
Uninformed: to not be apprised of
Inappropriate: not suitable
Misappropriate: to take something dishonestly for your own use
This next grouping includes words that take more than one prefix where the meaning is more similar. In these cases, the words are primarily seen as synonyms, usually with use being a matter of preference. It is also interesting to note that many of these word combinations are not actually words. I have marked those words that do not technically appear in the dictionary, but which are oftentimes used by native speakers. As far as the difference between each variation, I have opted not to include a definition for those pairs of words that I felt were synonyms. I would love to hear your input though on any subtle differences you may see between each pair of words.
Unaffected: not influenced
Unmoral: not affected or guided by morals
Amoral: having or showing no regard for morality, often relating to behavior
Unbelief: lack of belief
Disbelief: feeling of not being able to believe something
Disinterested: having no personal feelings or interest in something
Uninterested: not interested
Inability: lack of ability
Disability: condition that limits person’s physical or mental abilities
Irreligious: not believing in or practicing any religion
Unreligious: having no connection to religion
Antireligious: against or opposed to religion
Nonreligious: having nothing to do with religion
Unapproved: approval was rejected, not approved
Disapproved: not agreeing with or approving something
Dislike: to not like
Unlike: not similar
Unprofessional: conduct deviating from normal professional standards
Nonprofessional: describing someone that is not a professional in a particular field
Disorganized and Unorganized
Inept: lacking skill or ability
Inapt: not appropriate/suitable
Unapt: not likely
Incapable and Uncapable
Last but not least, words can be negated through the use of the word “not” as opposed to by prefixation. Unfortunately, there is, as far as I was able to discern, no clear line of when to use a prefix and when to use a separate word (i.e. not) for the purposes of negation. This is another here where I had trouble discerning any rules so, again, if anyone has any thoughts/knowledge I’d love to hear from you!
Unintelligent – not intelligent
To defund (take away funding) – not funded (didn’t receive funding)
Impossible – not possible
Disagree – not agree
Completely unfazed – not fazed at all
Unreliable – not reliable
Last but not least, to emphasize the utter confusion in this area, I want to address words that native English speakers often have trouble with and ultimately opt for the wrong prefix. Common words that people use but which are not actually listed in most dictionaries include incertain and irregardless.
Let’s look a little more at irregardless, an interesting case of language evolution. The base word here, regardless, meaning lacking attention. At some point, people started using irregardless as its synonym (potentially as a combination of irrespective and regardless). So many people started using this word, that it is now in fact a word, although its use is still frowned upon.
Comparative with Spanish
Despite these similarities, it is important to remember that “un-” is a uniquely Germanic prefix and therefore, when translating such words from English into Spanish, the prefix will have to be adjusted. It would be great if there were a rule along the lines of “translate the un- prefix in English to in- in Spanish.” Unfortunately, this does not work 100% of the time, although by looking at the table below you can see that this rule can, in general, be applied.
Comparative with French
The available prefixes in French include A-, CONTRE-, DÉ(S)-, IN-, NON-, MAL-, and MÉ(S)-. You will notice the same thing as with Spanish, which is the lack of the un- prefix.
And here is a table comparing certain prefixed words in French and English:
I am not even going to try to come up with some sort of rule for when what word takes what prefix in which language.
Comparative with German
I wanted to add a section on German to see how these work with another Germanic language besides English. The available affixes here include the prefixes A-, DES, IN-, MISS-, VER- and UN- and the suffix –LOS, –FREI, and -LEER.
Some interesting things are happening here. First, let’s take a look at the prefix VER-. We do not have this prefix in English, but it is an extremely useful prefix in German that is essentially used to form the opposite of the root verb. For example, kaufen (to buy) becomes verkaufen (to sell).
As with English, there are certain words that may appear to be employing a prefix, but which are not. For example, the word Unmenge (a gazillion) is clearly not trying to negate the meaning of the root word “Menge,” which means amount or quantity.
As with the French, there appears on the surface to be no rhyme or reason to when to use which prefix.
That’s all folks. Sorry it was so long! Every time I tried to find an answer to a question I had, I discovered a bazillion new things I wanted to discuss. For those of you who are reading this as an English learner, I’m afraid to say that the best way to learn these really is by rote memorization. My suggestion would be to keep a piece of paper or page in a notebook with ten columns (one for each affix), and jot down words as you come across them!
H.W. Fowler, A Dictionary of Modern English Usage: The Classic First Edition
Lea L. Seale, The Rise and Decline of Negative Doublets in English, American Speech, Vol. 35, No. 3 (Oct., 1960).